Lecture V AOC France Alsace Fall10 printer friendly

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Unformatted text preview: 9/20/2010 First stop on our exploration of the wine regions of France Today’s tour: French Wine Regulations Loire Valley Alsace Cell phones and electronic devices off and and stowed during class Prelim Prelim Information on Blackboard Themes for the prelim questions are now posted on the Blackboard site. Look at these asap. We have covered a asap. good deal of information so far. Start testing your knowledge by reviewing these materials. It is not possible to learn this material the night before the exam. AOC regulates the following: RedRed-Wine Compound May Help Mend Broken Hearts A team of scientists suggests the polyphenolic compound found in red wine may heal broken hearts. Their research published research, published online in the Journal Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, found that their attempts to heal heart damage with stem cells were more successful when the cells were in the presence of resveratrol. resveratrol. AOC Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée • A regulatory function started in 1935 to control certain aspects of grape growing and wine production in specific geographic areas. • INAO monitors both Viticultural and Vinicultural practices in the AOC regions AOC AOC regulates the following: Maximum Place of Origin (restricted geography) Grape Varieties (only specific grapes) Alcohol Content (minimum and maximum) Yields (Hectoliters per hectare) When harvest may begin each year Production methods (winemaking, chaptalization etc.) Note: This is done region by region and the local governing body has the power to declassify a producer’s wine. 1 9/20/2010 • The French AOC system has been used French Wine Labels as the model for much of Europe. Vin de Table • AOC in France • DOC in Italy • DO in Spain in Spain • DOC in Portugal Vin de Pays •Wine laws can help establish authenticity and set certain standards but they can not guarantee quality. French French Wine Classifications: Vins de Table - simple, ordinary wines, no geographic designation, no vintage. (14%) Vins de Pays (d’Oc) - country wines produced in large geographic areas. (31%) The source of the grapes is the key Classification Vins de Table Appellation Alsace Contrôlée French Wine Classifications: VDQS - Vins Delimites Qualite Superieure - wines of superior quality produced in designated areas (1%) AOC - Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée -- The top quality wines produced in specific controlled places. 54% of France’s wine is AOC The AOC Regions Geography All of France Vins de Pays A section of France VDQS A region showing promise AOC A tenured wine region 2 9/20/2010 Please get set to open your wine kits on the count of three. Video Loire Valley please AOC Regulations Didier Dagueneau The wild man of Pouilly-Fumé Pouilly- Loire at a glance France’s leading producer of white wines (red, rosés, sparkling, still, dry and sweet) France’s 2nd leading AOC region for fine sparkling wines France’s 3rd largest region in terms of production, with 125,000 acres, 4 million hectolitres, 400 million bottles 87 Appellations d’Origine Contrôlée AOC districts in the Loire Pays Nantais Anjou Saumur Touraine Upper Loire Loire Valley White Grapes Chenin Blanc - Pineau de la Loire cultivated in 845 Melon de Bourgogne - Muscadet Sauvignon Blanc Gros Plant -Picpoule (lip stinger) Chasselas Loire Valley label regulations Wines named after the places where the grapes are grown (villages) The place dictates the grape which can be used e.g. Sancerre can Sancerre (Sauvignon (Sauvignon Blanc) Grape Varieties: 100% for most AOC wines wines except when noted as a blend i.e. Rosé i.e. Rosé de Anjou 3 9/20/2010 AOC districts in the Loire Nantes: 4 appellations Muscadet, Muscadet Des Coteaux de la Loire, Muscadet Sevre et Maine, and Muscadet de Grandlieu (newest AOC- about 500 acres) Grape - Melon de Bourgogne (Muscadet) Melon de Bourgogne grape Grown virtually nowhere else -produces wines of penetrating minerality and acidity, with fresh, clean, citrus flavors. Muscadet - Sur Lie The wine is left on the “fine” lees after vinification until it is bottled. This adds flavor and changes the This adds flavor and changes the wines wines texture. The Vinet family owns about 60 acres. The vineyards are tended by Daniel and vinification is controlled by Gérard, his Gérard, younger brother. With the Atlantic influence, the harvest generally begins early September. The yields are not excessive excessive and all the fruit is harvested by hand. The real key to the wines from Domaine de la Quilla is that the Vinet’s keep the wines sur lie for eight months before bottling at the end of May Muscadet - Sur Lie INAO regulations specify two dates for bottling Sur Lie: The The 1st is between March 1 and 1st is between March and June June 30th, following the harvest. The 2nd is between October 15 and November 30th $ 4 9/20/2010 “Muscadet’s appeal is its delicacy and steely vigor” “Pale, racy and dry. Its tart lemon tang is offset by savory almond flavors and a Badoit-like taste of minerals.” minerals.” Jacqueline Friedrich— Wine and Food Friedrich— Guide Guide to the Loire August 30, 2010 Freeing Muscadet From a Pigeonhole By ERIC ASIMOV True, true, true. Oysters and Muscadet are glorious together, the briny, mineral-laden quality of one mineralenhancing enhancing the other. Many seafood dishes would go well with Muscadet, as well as light Muscadet, poultry preparations and pasta dishes, too. Alsace Alsace Northernmost wine region of France A wide range of white grape varieties Varietal wines, all with AOC status Fresh, fruit-driven, aromatic and nonfruitnonoaked wines 3 AOC (Appellations d’Origine Contrôlées) 2 prestigious late-harvest categories late 100 km long, 2 to 15 km wide 4800 growers, 38,000 acres Viticulture began here with the arrival of Caesar in 58 B.C. 15th Century Alsace exported over 1,000,000 hectoliters of wine year 1,000,000 hectoliters of wine a year From 1870 to 1945 under German rule Alsace wines were blended to give German wines the edge. Today it produces 18% of all AOC white wines in France Alsace - a great place to visit Alsace - a great place to visit Fortresses on the hilltops of the Vosges Sleepy little villages, the same as they were the same as they were constructed in the Middle Ages Regional food specialties you will love Accommodations to meet any budget Warm, friendly, generous people Wines that are easy to know and enjoy 5 9/20/2010 White Grape Varieties - 91% Red Grape Varieties - 9% Pinot Noir Pinot Blanc 20% Riesling-21% Gewürztraminer 18% 18% Sylvaner 9.3% Muscat 2% Pinot Gris - Tokay d’Alsace 14.7% Alsace Alsace Rainfall –lowest in France less than 20 inches per year Growing season: 50 days longer than Germany—this days longer than Germany this long long hang time produces very aromatic wines. Approved yields—highest in France yields— 100 hl/ha (6 tons/acre) DOMAINE René René Muré Founded: 1648 Ownership: 11th generation Production: Muré harvests much of his Muré wine well under 50hl/ha HandHand-harvested and pressed gently. Fermentation and aging in stainless steel tanks at controlled temperatures. Soil types: Limestone/Sand; Clay/Marlstone; Flint/Schist/Shale/Slate Mr. Muré's dismay is part of a growing concern in Europe about the gradual spread of genetically modified plants “He said a carefully tended vineyard could survive without pesticides, herbicides herbicides or transgenic plants.” "The more diversity, the greater the character of the wine," 6 9/20/2010 $ Alsace Riesling Pale yellow & green hints Dense, tight, elegant bouquet, floral notes with sometimes mineral hints citrus, grapefruit, peach, pear, apricot, li liquorice, acacia flower, petrolly, ce, fl pe y, flinty… flinty… Dry, backbone acidity, good structure, racy, tight, lean, pure A gastronomic wine for fish, shellfish, white meat, poultry, goat cheese $ 13 generations The viticultural origin of the Trimbach Family dates back to 1626, in village Riquewihr. Riquewihr. AOC Status granted in 1962 Appellation Alsace Contrôlée - 76% AOC yields of 100hl/ha (6 tons/acre) Appellation Appellation Cremant d’Alsace 1976 -20% These are sparkling wines made with local grape varieties AOC classification continued Alsace Grand Cru 1975/1983 only 4% of total production (yields restricted to 4 tons/acre) Some top producers limit yields to less than top producers limit yields to less than 2 tons/acre tons/acre 51 vineyards have been granted Grand Cru status. Only Riesling, Pinot Gris, Muscat and Gewurztraminer qualify for Grand Cru 7 9/20/2010 Alsace Blended Wines : GENTIL AND EDELZWICKER Gentil Minimum 50% Riesling, Muscat, Pinot Gris, and/or Gewurztraminer Edelzwicker : a blend of white grapes of AOC Alsace without any indication of percentage Controlled Label Terms Varietal Label - 100% of the grape named Vendange Tardive -- late harvest but fermented dry Selection de Grains Nobles - Botrytis Cinerea affected grapes Loire Valley - The Garden of France; Non Controlled Label Terms The original home of the rich and famous The medieval knights built fortresses The kings of the 15th & 16th The kings of the 15th 16th centuries centuries built pleasure castles The nobility of the 17th & 18th centuries built elegant chateaux Reserve Personnelle Cuvée Special Touring the Loire Valley The Loire Valley in west central France covers 350 scenic miles east to west. AOC districts in the Loire You can be king or can be king or queen for a night and stay in a chateaux - $$$ Endless variety of food: fresh fish, shellfish, some of the best cheese, meats, and game. Very good white wines and decent reds. more could you want? What Upper Loire: • Sancerre • Pouilly Fumé • Reuilly • Quincy Grapes - Sauvignon Blanc, Chasselas, & Chasselas, Pinot Noir 8 9/20/2010 Sauvignon Blanc in cool climates Sancerre Acreage 6,400 producers and 1 cooperative (70 members) they produced 165 million cases. 40% is exported. 230 Pouilly-Fumé Pouilly-Fumé Production 200,000 cases Grassy Herbacious Vegetal –bell pepper Olive Gun Metal Powder??? Grapefruit Gooseberry Green Domaine du Salvard 100 yrs. AOC districts in the Loire Touraine: • Cheverny--Sauvignon Blanc • Vouvray -- Chenin Blanc • Chinon -- Cabernet Franc • Bourgueil-- Cabernet Franc Bourgueil-- small family-run winery owned and familyoperated by Emmanuel Delaille and his brother Thierry the 5thgeneration. 35 hectares of vines are managed under under sustainable culture. The white is 85% Sauvignon & 15% Chardonnay $ Loire Valley Red Grapes Cabernet Franc Grolleau Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc Noir Jus Blanc Pinot Noir 9 9/20/2010 Label terms “Vielles Vignes” old vines - no legal definition Production statements: Mis en bouteille à la Propriété Mis en bouteille au Domaine Mis en bouteille par Sparkling Wines from the Loire “Fines Bulles” (fine bubbles) Bulles” Made by the Méthode Traditionnelle Méthode as Champagne but with local grapes (Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc) Crémant de Loire Saumur Brut Montlouis sur Loire Anjou Mousseux , Touraine Mousseux Touraine Vouvray By ERIC ASIMOV NY TIMES: Of all the wine grapes in the world, none are as underrated and under-respected as underChenin Blanc Chenin Blanc. Only in the Loire Valley of France, in AnjouAnjou-Saumur and Touraine does Chenin Blanc show its glorious potential. Styles of Chenin Blanc Sec - dry Demi Sec - off dry (slightly sweet) Moelleux - semi sweet Doux (liquoreaux) - sweet Vouvray Vouvray Acreage 4,400 Production 500,000 cases White and sparkling Grape variety –Chenin Blanc Top soil of siliceous-clay and siliceouslimestone clay over tuffeau tuffeau Chenin Blanc Varietal Characteristics: Fruity, Melon, Peach, Apple, Citrus Vouvray aromas of acacia, quince and aromas almond almond Late Harvest Chenin Blanc: Honey, tropical fruits, apricot, quince, orange and lemon zest 10 9/20/2010 AOC districts in the Loire $ ANJOU: SWEET WINES • Coteaux du Layon • Bonnezeaux • Quarts de Chaume Grapes - Chenin Blanc Alsace Gewü Gewürztraminer Spicy –cinnamon, ginger, honeysuckle Lychee Grapefruit, lemon, apple, melon Roses GEWURZTRAMINER Please close up your kits. Rich aromas of flowers, spices and exotic fruits, rose, acacia, peppermint, clove, cinnamon, ginger grapefruit, litchi, mango, pineapple, pear, pear, quince - honey Full-bodied, well-structured and Fullwellpowerful High alcohol, low acidity - sometimes produced slightly sweet 11 ...
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