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Unformatted text preview: ECE 5670 : Digital Communications Lecture 19: The Discrete Time Complex Baseband Wireless Channel 1 3/31/2011 Instructor: Salman Avestimehr Introduction In the previous lecture we saw that even though the wireless communication is done via passband signals, most of the processing at the transmitter and the receiver happens on the (complex) baseband equivalent signal of the real passband signal. We saw how the baseband to passband conversion is done at the transmitter. We also studied simple examples of the wireless channel and related it to the equivalent channel in the baseband. The focus of this lecture is to develop a robust model for the wireless channel. We want the model to capture the essence of the wireless medium and yet be generic enough to be applicable in all kinds of surroundings. A Simple model Figure 1 shows the processing at the transmitter. We modulate two data streams to generate the sequence of complex baseband voltage points x b [ m ]. The real and imaginary parts of x b [ m ] pass through the D/A converter to give baseband signal x b ( t ). Real and imaginary parts of x b ( t ) then modulates cos and sin parts of the carrier to generate the passband signal x ( t ). The passband signal x ( t ) is transmitted in the air and the signal y ( t ) received. Given all the details of the reflectors and absorbers in the surroundings, one can possibly use Maxwells equations to determine the propagation of the electromagnetic signals and get y ( t ) as an exact function of x ( t ). However, such a detailed model is neither required nor is desired. The transmitter and receiver antennas are typically separated by several wavelengths apart and far field approximations of the signal propagation are good enough. Secondly, we do not want the model to be very specific to certain surrounding. We want the model to be applicable to most of the surroundings and still be meaningful. We can model the electromagnetic signal as rays. As the rays travel in the air, they get attenuated. There is a nonzero propagation delay that each ray experiences. Further, the rays gets reflected by different reflectors before reaching the receiver. Thus, the signal arrives at the receiver via multiple paths, each of which sees different delay and attenuation. There is also an additive noise present at the receiver. Hence, we can have a simple model for the received signal y ( t ) as y ( t ) = summationdisplay i a i x ( t i ) + w ( t ) , (1) 1 Based on lecture notes of Professor Pramod Viswanath at UIUC. 1 x(t) Information Packet Coding Coded Packet Modulation sequence of voltage levels D/A D/A x I b [ m ] x Q b [ m ] x I b ( t ) x Q b ( t ) 2 cos 2 f c t 2 sin 2 f c t Figure 1: Diagrammatic representation of transmitter....
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course ECE 5670 taught by Professor Scaglione during the Spring '11 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).
- Spring '11