EXAMPLE 4.1 - 100 QUICK QUESTION 4.1 A plastic,...

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100 The Silicon Web: Physics for the Internet Age REAL-WORLD EXAMPLE 4.1: GROWING SILICON CRYSTALS FOR COMPUTER CHIPS A nearly perfect silicon (Si) crystal is needed to begin the making of the electronic circuit in a computer chip. These are called integrated circuits, or ICs. Crystals for making ICs are grown by a natural process in which atoms F nd their way from a liquid onto the sur- face of a crystal, which constantly increases in size. You might be familiar with crystal growth from grade-school days, where a common experiment is to grow sugar crystals from a highly concentrated solution of sugar in water. A string is placed into the solution and small crystals grow onto the surface of the string. To make ICs, we need to grow large Si crystals, up to 16 inches in diameter. The surface of a crystal of this size can hold hundreds of ICs, which are then separated by cutting the crystal. The common method to grow large, pure Si crystals is to start with clean sand (sili- con dioxide, SiO 2 ). The sand is puriF ed by chemical reactions and then melted at a high temperature in a furnace to produce a liquid of SiO 2 that is pure to a few parts per billion.
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2011 for the course PHYS 222 taught by Professor Wade during the Spring '09 term at Edmonds Community College.

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EXAMPLE 4.1 - 100 QUICK QUESTION 4.1 A plastic,...

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