The Ear_L_Avenue-1 - Sound & Hearing Sound and Hearing...

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1 PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound & Hearing Concepts: Sound loudness and Human ear sensitivity Waves, sound waves Standing waves, sound waves in tubes Resonance Human Ear, Ear structure Functions of different parts of human ear Chapter 17 Pages: 527-539, 540-548,550-556 PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound and Hearing • Questions: • What is sound? • What is hearing? • How does our auditory system work? PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound • What is Sound? –Is it a variation in air pressure? –Is it a variation in air density? –Is it a variation in air molecule’s position? –Is it a vibration? –Is it an oscillation? –Is it a wave? • What kind of wave is it? –What is wave? PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound • Sound is: –the fluctuations in air pressure that can be detected by our auditory system , the ear. PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound: –is the sequence of compressions and rarefactions , a vibration , that is transmitted through air, or another medium, at a characteristic speed. PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound: –is a type of wave ; –in particular, is a longitudinal wave , – is a mechanical wave , • which travels through some medium; it can not travel through vacuum.
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2 PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound and Hearing Hearing: • What is hearing? • Which part of the body performs this task (hearing)? –How does it do that? PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Sound and Hearing • Hearing is: –the ability to perceive sound by receiving the air pressure fluctuations (vibrations in the air), transducing them into nervous impulses and transmitting the impulses to the central nervous system. • The ear performs this task. –A transducer is any device which converts one type of energy (sound) into another (electrical). PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University • The ear functions as a biological transducer. – It turns sound energy into mechanical energy, and the into electrical impulses. – The ear has inner , middle , and outer sections Sound and Hearing PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University The Ear Outer Middle Inner PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University The Human Ear • The ear is a very sensitive device, –sensing vibration amplitudes as small as 10 -8 cm, • roughly the size of a single Hydrogen atom. • Changes in sound intensity are perceived as changes in sound loudness . • However, sound loudness is subjective . –It does not correlate in a simple way with intensity. PHYS 1L03, Winter 2011, McMaster University Loudness and Sensitivity • Sound Loudness is a function of both sound frequency and intensity . • The sensitivity of the ear varies with sound
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The Ear_L_Avenue-1 - Sound & Hearing Sound and Hearing...

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