Ch 1 Introduction

Ch 1 Introduction - o Some exhibit magnetic behavior •...

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Ch 1 Introduction Classification of Materials Three basic classifications: metals, ceramics, and polymers Metals = materials that are composed of one or more metallic elements and often also nonmetallic elements in relatively small amounts o Metal alloy = a metallic substance that is composed of two or more elements o Atoms in metals and alloys are arranged very orderly and more dense than ceramics and polymers o Metals are stiff, strong ductile and are resistant to fracture o Large numbers of nonlocalized electrons (not bound to particular atoms) o Good electric and heat conductors o Some have desirable magnetic properties Ceramics = compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements o Most frequently oxides, nitrides, and carbides o Relatively stiff and strong, very hard, but brittle o Highly susceptible to fracture o Low conductivity o Very restive to high temps and harsh environments
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Unformatted text preview: o Some exhibit magnetic behavior • Polymers = plastics and rubbers, organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements o Common polymers: polyethylene, nylon, pvc, silicone rubber o Low densities, not stiff nor strong, extremely ductile and pliable (form into complex shapes) o Soften and decompose easily in moderate temperatures o Low conductivity and nonmagnetic • Composites = composed of 2 or more individual materials that come from metals, viz., ceramics and polymers o goal of composites is to achieve combination of props that are unique to any single material and best characteristics of each of its component materials o most composites are synthetic eg fiberglass o strong and stiff but also brittle, low density • Advanced materials = semiconductors, biomaterials...
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Ch 1 Introduction - o Some exhibit magnetic behavior •...

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