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AP Biology Notes - Ch. 9 & 10

AP Biology Notes - Ch. 9 & 10 - TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT...

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TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 9 1. Create a chart to distinguish between fermentation and cellular respiration. Include reactants, products, energy harvest, and location. Cellular Respiration Fermentation most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel occurs in cytoplasm and in mitochondria - NAD+: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid occurs outside of mitochondria in cytoplasm enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen - extension of glycolysis that can generate ATP solely by substrate–level phosphorylation—as long as there is a sufficient supply of NAD + to accept electrons during the oxidation step of glycolysis Catabolic pathways are metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules. Fermentation and cellular respiration are examples of catabolic pathways. 2. Using a diagram, explain how ATP is recycled in cells. 3. Write and describe redox reactions; explain how they are involved in energy changes, and the role of coenzymes like NAD+ in these reactions. Redox reactions (oxidation–reduction reaction) are chemical reactions involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; oxidation: loss of electrons from a substance;
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reduction: addition of electrons to a substance. ATP is produced by substrate–level phosphorylation and NAD + is reduced to NADH by electrons released from the oxidation of the food. Electrons are transferred from substrates to NAD + to form NADH 4. Describe the role of NAD+ and the electron transport chain during respiration. Include the role of electrons in each process. Explain what would happen if the amount of NAD+ was limited. NAD + : Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism. NAD + acts as an electron ‘carrier’, a coenzyme. Enzymes called ‘dehydrogenases’ remove a pair of hydrogen atoms from the substrate (think of as the removal of two electrons). The enzyme delivers these electrons to NAD + , and then NADH is neutral, and carrying electrons to the electron transport chain where they then make their ‘fall’ towards O 2 , creating ATP. 5. Identify where substrate level phosphorylation, and the reduction of NAD+ occur in glycolysis. Glycolysis: slitting of sugar (glucose splits into two three-carbon sugars) substrate level phosphorylation: occurs during energy payoff phase; formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism. When chemical bonds are broken, NAD + picks up electrons and hydrogen ions to form NADH; occurs in energy payoff phase.
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