AP Biology Notes - Ch. 43

AP Biology Notes - Ch. 43 - TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 43...

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TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 43 1. Compare and contrast innate immunity and acquired immunity. Innate immunity: Is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth. These defenses are largely nonspecific, and quickly recognize and respond to a broad range of microbes regardless of their precise identity. These nonspecific lines of defense include: o External: Skin, Mucous membranes, Secretions o Internal: Phagocytic Cells, Antimicrobial proteins, Inflammatory response, and Natural Killer Cells Acquired Immunity: develops only after exposure to inducing agents such as microbes, abnormal body cells, toxins or other foreign substances. They are highly specific, that is they can distinguish one inducing agent from another, even if they only differ slightly. This is achieved by white blood cells called lymphocytes, which produce two general types of immune responses. Humoral (antibodies) and Cell-mediated (cytotoxic lymphocytes) 2. Create a chart of the external defenses with the location of defenses, cells involved, and how it inhibits the antigen. External defenses Location Cells involved How it inhibits the antigen secretions Mouth, genitourinary tracts, lymph nodes, digestive, respiratory, Cells involved are sweat, mucus, tears, antimicrobial proteins, Lysosome This inhibits the antigen by secreting from sweat glands give the skin a pH acidic enough to prevent microbes skin This includes the outer membrane of organism also oil and Sweat glands Cells involved are epithelial cells Oil and Sweat glands give the skin a pH ranging from 3 to 5 which is acidic enough to prevent colonization of many microbes. Similarly the acidic environment of the stomach destroys most pathogens before they can enter the intestines. mucous membranes This includes the lining the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary tracts bar the entry of potentially harmful microbes. Cells involved certain cells in the mucus membrane produce mucus, a viscous fluid that traps microbes and other particles. Microbial colonization is also inhibited by the washing action of the mucous secretions of saliva and tears. Together they provide an environment hostile to microbes. 3. Create a chart of the internal nonspecific defenses. Include location, cells and chemicals involved, and how it inhabits the antigen. internal defenses location cells involved chemicals involved inhibition of antigen example phagocytic cells anywhere in body- attach to prey through surface receptors Phagocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, monocytes, chemicals involved are Lysosomes, nitric oxide, toxic oxygen; lysozymes ingestion of invading organisms by certain types of white cells neutrophils- constitute about 60–70% of all white blood cells antimicrobial proteins anywhere in body- assist phagocytes in cell death 30 serum proteins, (complement system); phagocytes; dendritic cells, chemicals involved lysosomes: nitric oxide, toxic oxygen; Complement system – lysis
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AP Biology Notes - Ch. 43 - TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 43...

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