AP Biology Notes - Ch. 45

AP Biology Notes - Ch. 45 - Text Analysis Questions Chapter...

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Text Analysis Questions Chapter 45 1. Compare and contrast the endocrine system and the nervous system. The Nervous system: Conveys high-speed electrical signals along specialized cells called neurons for a quick response to stimuli. The endocrine system uses hormones for a much slower transfer of information to parts of the body. Hormone transfer is through body fluids. The endocrine system are made of endocrine glands, secretes hormones that coordinate slower but longer-acting responses to stimuli. The nervous system (specifically the autonomic nervous system, responding to stress) is a "hard-wired" system. Nerves travel between the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the organs. Electrical impulses travel along the nerves to get to their destination. The endocrine system is a "wireless" system. Hormones are released into the bloodstream by endocrine glands. The hormones circulate throughout the body until they meet up with the proper receptor and have an effect on the organ bearing that receptor. Therefore, the nervous system provides a much faster, shorter acting response. The electrical signals travel along the nerves very quickly to their destination, and effects wear off quickly without continued stimulation from the nervous system. The endocrine system has a slower, more long-acting response. Once hormones are released into the bloodstream, they take some time to reach their destination, and they also take time to dissipate from the bloodstream. The Endocrine system is responsible for slower metabolic changes over seconds, minutes, hours, or even years. The Nervous system is responsible for analyzing sensory information and providing an immediate, short term metabolic change. Both the endocrine system and the nervous system are vital to the survival of organisms. To appreciate their similarities and differences fully we must review their function within humans. The nervous system coordinates the activities of muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and processes input from the senses, and initiates actions or responses. The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distance organs (referred to as target organs). Both systems are similar in that they affect a target organ or organs, however their affect on these organs is quite different. 2. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback for homeostasis. Give examples of both kinds of feedback. Negative Feedback, the effecter response reduces the initial stimulus and eventually the response ceases. Positive Feedback: reinforces the stimulus and leads to an even greater response. Regulatory mechanisms in organisms allow the organism to function a more stable level. Feedback systems are divided into two subunits. Negative feedback is the most common. This is where the accumulation of the end product slows down the
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 1510 taught by Professor --- during the Spring '11 term at Georgia State.

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AP Biology Notes - Ch. 45 - Text Analysis Questions Chapter...

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