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AP Biology Notes - Ch. 46

AP Biology Notes - Ch. 46 - TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 46...

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TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 46 1. For lower animals you want to demonstrate the structure and function of the reproductive system in at least 5 animals from different phyla in an evolutionary theme. (You might need to check Ch. 33 & 34 for classification information). The five animals should represent four invertebrates and one vertebrate. Include labeled diagrams of the selective reproductive systems only including the reproductive structures and their functions. Explain the evolutionary advantage that reproductive system provides for that animal. The diagrams should show evolutionary development of the reproduction and its organs. Reproductive System Evolutionary Adaptations DAPHNIA Female cladocerans have a large water-filled brood pouch Eggs are extruded here from the oviducts and brooded until they complete embryonic development and become juvenile cladocerans. The brood pouch of your specimen may be filled with eggs, embryos, or juveniles Females produce two types of eggs. Summer eggs have little yolk and develop parthenogenetically, without fertilization. Summer eggs Resting eggs are very yolky and thick shelled and are produced only after fertilization. Only two resting eggs are produced Winter eggs are not brooded rather are quickly released by the female The ephippium is released when the female molts. CAMEL SPIDER The gonopore is a small slit on the sternite of the second abdominal segment. It is covered by the genital opercula There is little sexual dimorphism except for the flagellum of the male chelicera. PEANUT WORM Fertilization is external and, although sipunculans are gonochoric, there is no sexual dimorphism. Fertilization is external. The two gonads are inconspicuous, frilly, transverse ridges across the base of the two ventral ovary embryo Rectums Abdome
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retractor muscles Germ cells do not ripen in the gonads nor are gametes stored here so the gonads are never large. Developing germ cells are released into the trunk coelom where they complete their maturation and become spermatozoa or ova. Mature gametes accumulate in the metanephridia prior to release. Spiral cleavage produces a trochophore larva. GARDEN SPIDER The most conspicuous feature of a sagittal section of the abdomen is usually one of the two ovaries The ovary is a long white organ in the middle of the abdomen. Its walls bear distinctive vertical folds and eggs are clearly visible within it. It connects with the female gonopore at the base of the epigynum via an oviduct TURTLE Kidneys - Compact, flattened organs located just under the carapace. The kidneys are responsible for filtering the blood of the turtle and removing harmful waste products. Bladder Organ that stores urine.
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