Psych Final 1 - Parts, Life, and Death of a Neuron...

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Parts, Life, and Death of a Neuron Dendrite- root like parts of the cell that stretch out from the cell body, they grow to make synaptic connections with other neurons Axon- wire-like structure ending in the terminal buttons that extends from the cell body Axon terminals- branched end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters Myelin sheath- speeds neural impulses Sodium and potassium- sodium=charge; potassium=resting Synapse- space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron Sensory neurons- neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system Motor neurons- neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to muscle and glands Interneurons- central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs Selectively permeable membrane- consists of small pores that allow two ions (sodium and potassium) through to produce action potential Action potential- neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channel’s in the axon’s membrane Repolarization- settles back to resting- recharging for next fire in action potential Absolute refractory period- charge is way too low- can’t fire again (-90 millivolts) Reuptake inhibitors- pushing the neurons brake excess neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by sending neurons Differentiation- a new cell is specialized in a new form and function Stem cells- primitive cells that give rise to other types of cells- found in human embryos, bodies of adults Migration- follows the long fibers of the cells called radial glia Death of neurons- natural- neurons get old and die; unnatural death- neurons can’t control itself Neurotransmitters and Brain Watching Tool Acetylcholine- motor movement, learning, memory, and mood; calms mind and body Endorphins- pain control- involved with addictions Dopamine- motor movement and alertness- associated with Parkinson’s disease; over abundance associated with schizophrenia Serotonin- mood control- diminishes appetite and sexual behavior- lack of it associated with depression Norepinephrine- “fight or flight” response, physical response. Causes anxiety and depression if not in body GABA- only neurotransmitter that’s an inhibitory, slows neural process; sleep MRI- shows details of brain structure with information about blood flow in brain- finds tumors/infections PET- scans activity in brain- detects cancer, cardiovascular disease; gamma rays CAT- obtains images of part of body EEG- detects brainwaves Nervous System Somatic- controls voluntary muscle movement Autonomic- controls automatic functions of our body- heart, lungs, internal organs, glands, etc.
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course PSYCH 1101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Georgia State.

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Psych Final 1 - Parts, Life, and Death of a Neuron...

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