Psych Final 2 - Chapter 01 Thinking Critically with...

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Chapter 01 - Thinking Critically with Psychological Science The Scientific Attitude Scientific approach that is skeptical and open-minded To shift away from illusions to reality, one must use Smart thinking or critical thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept things, but approaches with skepticism and examines the evidence carefully; Ask how did they know, on guts and instinct? Are the evidence biased? The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense Intuition often ends up nowhere Tend to use a lot hindsight bias: tendency to believe that one would have known it after the results are shown; Seems like common sense; The answer was right there and look how obvious it was Experience it usually when looking back on history; eg. Glen Clark and the fast ferries Humans tend to be overconfident, think we know more than we actually do (probably result of self-serving bias) Hindsight causes us to be overconfident as we believe we would have picked the answer when the results are in front of us The Scientific Method Scientific theory: explanation using set of principles to organise/predict observations No matter how good theory sounds, must put it to test Must imply testable prediction = hypothesis Beware of bias when testing Good experiment can be replicated: the experiment can be repeated and would yield constant results; done with a different group of people or by a different person ending with constant results Theory useful if: I. effectively organises range of observations II. implies clear predictions Case study: research method where one person is studied in depth to find universal principles (things that apply to all) Drawback is that the individual being studied could be atypical, results not universally contained Survey: research method to get the self-reported attitudes/behaviours of people Looks at cases less depth and wording of question affects the response given (framing)Tend to hang around group similar to us so using them as study is wrong False consensus effect: tendency to overestimate other’s agreement with us; eg. Vegetarians believe larger amount of pop. is vegetarian than meat-eaters Population: all the cases in the group being studied To make a good sample, use random sampling: sample that gives each case a good chance of being studied to ensure results within range Naturalistic observation: observing and recording behaviour in natural settings with any control on situation When finding a trait that accompanies another, not resulting effect, but correlation: the way 2 factors vary together and how well one predicts the other Positive correlation: direct relationship where factors increase or decrease together Negative correlation: inverse relationship where one factor goes up while one goes down Does not explain cause, simply show relationship between factors
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2011 for the course PSYCH 1101 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Georgia State.

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Psych Final 2 - Chapter 01 Thinking Critically with...

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