This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: _______________________, _____________________--_______ IB/DP HL History of Europe IIPeriod 1 4 Date: _____________________________ _______, 20_________ Final Exam Study Guide: Psychology Unit Introduction Psychology is the scientific study of thought and behavior . Psychologists study how the brain creates thoughts, feelings, and actions, and how internal and external environments affect them. Approaches to Psychology A. Biological-focuses on the relationship between the body and the mind B. Behavioral concerned mainly with a persons observable responses to stimuli C. Cognitive concerned with memory, perception, thought, and other mental processes D. Humanistic focuses on a persons fulfillment and growth E. Psychodynamic concerned with the influence of unconscious desires and motives Research Studies A. Studies test hypotheses (testable explanations of observable events) B. Studies must have reliability and validity 1. Reliability the study produces consistent results when replicated 2. Validity the study accurately measures what it claims to measure. There are three types of validity: a. Construct the study measures the effect that it is trying to measure b. Internal the study shows that only the experience factor is an effect c. External the study results apply to other situations Types of Studies A. Correlation Study expresses the relationship between two variables; does not imply causation B. Experiment manipulation of an independent variable in order to understand effect on a dependant variable; identifies cause-and-effect relationships 1. Sampling the process of choosing subjects to study a. Sample a group of subjects selected study; a subset of a population b. Population a group of people about whom the researcher wants to make conclusions; the sample should represent the population Page 1 of 25 2. Random Assignment random placement of subjects into experimental or control groups a. Control group a group not subject to experimental manipulation b. Experimental group a group manipulated by the research 3. Variables things that can vary among subjects a. Independent variable manipulated by the researcher to produce a change in the dependent variable b. Dependent variable measured by the researcher c. Confounding variable any possible variable (other than the independent variable that may cause the observed effect Statistics Statistical Analysisdescribes data and quantifies relationships between variables A. Frequency distribution an arrangement of data points based on how frequently they occur 1. Normal distribution a frequency distribution with a symmetrical bell-shaped curve 2. Central tendency measures of the center of the frequency distribution; there are three types a. Mean the arithmetic average of data points b. Median the middle data point c. Mode the most frequent data point 3. Variability how the data are dispersed or spread around the mean...
View Full Document
- Spring '11