SGII - 2 A ATP-Adenosine Triphosphate-Has 1 Ribose 3 ionized phosphate groups and the nitrogenous base Adenine-ATP can be broken down by breaking

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2) A) ATP -Adenosine Triphosphate -Has 1 Ribose, 3 ionized phosphate groups, and the nitrogenous base Adenine. -ATP can be broken down by breaking down the phosphate groups. -Terminal phosphate group is broken off by hydrolysis [input of water between bonds]. ATP + H 2 O ADP + P i -When broken, an inorganic phosphate and ADP is formed. The inorganic phosphate is used to phosphorylate proteins and ADP to regenerate ATP. -The breaking down of ATP into P i and ADP is catabolic, hence it is an exergonic reaction. -The energy form the break down of ATP can be used to energize other reactions if the G of other reactions is less than the G of ATP exergonic reaction. -The Phosphate bonds in ATP are referred to as “high-energy bonds” because the breakdown of ATP by hydrolysis is done in Phosphate bonds and produces energy. But, the energy release comes from instability of ATP trying to reach a stable state, not from the phosphate bonds themselves. -The phosphate bonds are unstable because they are ionized in biological settings, However, they are still compressed together. Because of their identical charges, they repel. This repulsion takes energy to do the work of repelling, thus making ATP unstable. B) ATP doing work: Phosphorylated Intermediates -ATP does work my phosphorylating other proteins and molecules with the inorganic phosphate produced from catabolism. -The phosphorylation makes the protein more reactive and more instable, and hence, the intermediate can do either mechanical work, transport, or chemical work. -ATP phosphorylates sodium-potassium pumps so that the pumps can change shape to
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Clay,m during the Summer '08 term at San Mateo Colleges.

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SGII - 2 A ATP-Adenosine Triphosphate-Has 1 Ribose 3 ionized phosphate groups and the nitrogenous base Adenine-ATP can be broken down by breaking

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