conjugation - 1) 18.3, 18.4 (346-356) A. Describe the...

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1) 18.3, 18.4 (346-356) A. Describe the bacterial chromosome and the plasmids of bacteria. How is the bacterial chromosome different from a eukaryotic chromosome? nucleoid B. Describe how transformation and transduction lead to genetic recombination in bacteria. Distinguish between generalized and specialized transduction. C. Explain the characteristics of plasmids and distinguish them from phages. D. Discuss conjugation and Hfr conjugation . F plasmid F+ , F- episome E. Explain the activity of transposons in bacteria. insertion sequence transposase inverted repeats direct repeats F. Describe the organization of bacterial genes. promoter operon structural genes polycistronic (many genes) operator regulatory gene represso r G. Describe both negative and positive feedback control of operons. Include: repressible (trp) corepressor inducible (lac) CAP/ cAMP A) - Bacterial chromosomes have circular DNA with 1 origin of replication. -Bacterial chromosomes coil/supercoil [caused by other proteins] and forms a nucleoid, or dense region of DNA in the cell. -Almost analogous to a eukaryotic nucleus, but is not bound by a membrane. - Plasmids are smaller circles of DNA with less genes than that of bacterial chromosomes. -Not attached to chromosomes. -not necessary for survival and reproduction of bacterium in normal conditions. -May provide advantages to bacterial cells in stressful environments. B) Transformation -alteration of one cell’s phenotype by some sort of genetic recombination. -EXAMPLE: -Dead pathogenic cells placed in the same environment as unpathogenic cells. -nonpathogenic cells will take up the allele that promises for some sort of phenotypic trait that will be incorporated into the nonpathogenic cell’s chromosome and replaces old allele. Thus the nonpathogenic cell is now pathogenic.
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This note was uploaded on 10/02/2011 for the course CHEM 210 taught by Professor Clay,m during the Summer '08 term at San Mateo Colleges.

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conjugation - 1) 18.3, 18.4 (346-356) A. Describe the...

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