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22 - Cell Structure and Function(Pgs 112-121 124-129...

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Cell Structure and Function (8/22/09) (Pg’s 112-121, 124-129) A) -Cytoskeleton Functions 1) Keep the Structure of the Cell. 2) Motility/Movement of Cell and Structures within Cell. -Movement of Cell- -Microtubules use Motor Proteins to attach Microtubules between Flagella and/or Cilia, and they go past each other. -Movement within Cell -Microtubules are the train tracks for vesicles when they travel from ER, to Golgi apparatus, and out Plasma Membrane. Uses a Motor Protein to walk along Microtubules of cytoskeleton. 3) Regulation -Uses surface proteins on plasma membrane to detect changes on cell membrane. Cytoskeleton changes cell structure in order to retain cellular function. Components Cytoskeleton has 3 types of fibers that vary in size, structure, and functions. 1) Microtubules 2) Microfilaments 3) Intermediate Filaments B) Microtubules Composition Function -Hollow tubes. -Wall is made out of Tubulin (a globular protein, with 2 polypeptide sub units) -Makes up flagella and cilia as 9 doublets with one doublet in the middle, all binded together by cross-linking proteins, and Dynein arms (proteins responsible for movement of flagella/cilia. Because there are 9 doublets, and 1 doublet in the middle, the structure is known as a 9+2 structure . -Also makes up structure of centrioles in the centrosome, which produce microtubules. (Centriole=9 triplets in a ring). -Shapes and supports cell by resisting compression/pushing on cell. -Motility of vesicles, serving as train tracks as motor protein walks the vesicle through. -Motility of cell, as motor protein binds microtubules between flagella/cilia to move past. -Separation of chromosomes during cell division. -Makes up the structure of flagella and cilia C) Microfilaments/Actin filaments Structure -Built from a twisted double chain of actins filaments, with networks between the 2 actins
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letting the fiber extend and contract.
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