Week 1 W - Inorganic
Chemistry
 Chem
145


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Unformatted text preview: Inorganic
Chemistry
 Chem
145
 Prof.
Lionel
Cheruzel
 Office
DH
281
 Office
hours
MWF
10:30‐11:30
and
by
appointment
 Learning
Assistance
Resource
Center
 (LARC)
 •  www.sjsu.edu/larc
 •  We
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group
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students
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 learn
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individual
tutoring
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students
who
may
need
concentrated
 assistance,
and
drop‐in
tutoring
for
students
with
quick
quesWons
in
Math
or
 WriWng.
 •  Students
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 new
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 •  Students
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Student
Services
Center
in
room
600,
call
our
front
desk
 at
408‐924‐2587,
or
learn
more
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us
at
www.sjsu.edu/larc
.
Please
contact
the
 Tutorial
Coordinator,
Karin
Winnard,
directly
at
924‐3346
if
you
have
any
quesWons.
 One
of
the
goals
at
the
end
of
the
class
 Predict
the
shape,
Molecular
orbital
diagram
of
metal
complexes
and
interpret
their
UV
vis
 spectra.

 Co2+
salts
 [Co(CN)6]3‐
b)
[Co(NO2)6]3‐
c)
[Co(Phen)3]3+
d)
[Co(en)3]3+
e)
[Co(NH3)6]3+
f)
[Co(gly)3]
g)
 [Co(H2O)6]3+
h)
[Co(ox)3]3‐
i)
[Co(CN)6]3‐
i)
[Co(CO3)3]3‐






 What
are
we
going
to
talk
about
 •  Basic
Concepts
(atoms
/
molecules)
 –  Lewis
structure,
VSEPR.
 •  IntroducWon
to
Molecular
Symmetry.
 •  Bonding
in
Diatomic/Polyatomic
Molecules.
 •  d‐block
elements.
 •  their
properWes
and
reacWvity.
 •  Organometallics
and
trace
metals
of
life.
 BASIC
CONCEPTS
 Mass
number
 20
 Ne
 10
 Atomic
number
 Bohr’s
model
of
 the
hydrogen
 atom
 Element
symbol
 Quantum
chemistry

 •  Schrodinger
equaWons
 •  Heisenberg’s
incerWtude
principle.
 •  Quantum
number
n,
l,
ml,
ms
 •  Shape
of
orbitals
 Trends
in
periodical
table
 –  atomic
size
 –  ion
size
 –  ionizaWon
energy
 –  electron
affinity
 Lewis
structure

 •  The
dot
approach
to
represent
the
number
of
 valence
electrons.
 SHAPE
OF
MOLECULES
 Bonding
:
Molecular
Orbital
 Bonding
in
CO
 Molecular
symmetry
 Point
Groups
 Character
tables
 •  Describing
molecules
in
terms
of
their
respecWve
 point
groups
provides
informaWon
about
all
the
 symmetries
elements.
 •  VibraWonal
modes
of
molecules
 Molecular
Orbital
Diagram
for
water
 CoordinaWon
complexes
 an
introducWon
 2+ NH3 H3N NH3 Co H3N NH3 NH3 •  IntroducWon
to
d‐block
elements
 –  crystal
field
theory:
 •  ElectrostaWc
model;
simply
uses
the
ligand
electrons
to
 create
electric
field
around
the
metal
centre.

 –  ligand
field
theory:
 Molecular
Orbital
Diagram
for
 octahedral
complexes
 UV‐vis
spectroscopy
 Exited
state
 •  The absorption of UV or visible radiation corresponds to the excitation of outer electrons. absorpWon
 •  When an atom or molecule absorbs energy, electrons are promoted from Ground
state
 their ground state to an excited state.
 Violet:


400
‐
420
nm
 Indigo:


420
‐
440
nm

 Blue:


440
‐
490
nm

 Green:


490
‐
570
nm

 Yellow:


570
‐
585
nm

 Orange:


585
‐
620
nm

 Red:


620
‐
780
nm
 302
kJ/mol
 150
kJ/mol
 Energy
 UV‐vis
spectra
 •  Microstates
and
term
symbols
 •  Tanabe‐Sugano
diagram
 One
of
the
goals
at
the
end
of
the
class
 Predict
the
shape,
Molecular
orbital
diagram
of
the
complexes
and
interpret
their
UV
vis
spectra.

 Co2+
salts
 [Co(CN)6]3‐
b)
[Co(NO2)6]3‐
c)
[Co(Phen)3]3+
d)
[Co(en)3]3+
e)
[Co(NH3)6]3+
f)
[Co(gly)3]
g)
 [Co(H2O)6]3+
h)
[Co(ox)3]3‐
i)
[Co(CN)6]3‐
i)
[Co(CO3)3]3‐






 •  Classic
Inorganic
Complexes,
their
properWes
 and
reacWvity
 –  luminescence,
electron
transfer…
 •  Organometallics

 •  The
importance
of
trace
metals
in
life.
 Basic
Concepts
 Mass
number
 20
 Ne
 Element
symbol
 10
 Atomic
number
 Atomic
number
=
Z
=
number
of
protons
in
the
nucleus
=
number
of
electrons
 Mass
number
=
A
=
number
of
protons
+
number
of
neutrons
 Number
of
neutrons
=
A
–
Z.

 Proton
 Charge/C
 Electron
 Neutron
 +1.602
x
10‐19
 ‐1.602
x
10‐19
 0
 Charge
number
(relaWve
charge)
 1
 ‐1
 0
 Rest
mass
/kg
 1.673
x
10‐27
 9.109
x
10‐31
 1.675
x
10‐27
 RelaWve
mass
 1837
 1
 1839
 Hydrogen
Spectrm
 Electronic
discharge
passed
through
a
sample
of
H2.
The
molecules
dissociate
 into
atoms
and
the
electron
in
a
parWcular
excited
H
atom
may
be
promoted
to
 one
of
many
high
energy
levels.
These
states
are
transient
and
the
electron
falls
 back
to
a
lower
energy
state,
emiqng
energy
as
it
does
so.

 Bohr’s
model
of
the
hydrogen
atom
 •  Allowed
levels
are
quanWzed
 energy
levels,
orbits.
 •  Electrons
are
found
only
in
these
 energy
levels
 •  Highest‐energy
orbits
are
 farthest
from
the
nucleus
 •  Atoms

 –  absorb
energy
by
excitaWon
of
 electrons
to
higher
energy
levels
 –  release
energy
by
relaxaWon
of
 electrons
to
lower
energy
levels
 •  Energy
differences
may
be
 calculated
from
the
wavelength
 of
light
emired
 E
=
‐kZ2/n2
with
k
=
1.312
x
103
kJ
mol‐1
 Hydrogen
Spectrum
 Quantum
chemistry,
wave
mechanics
 •  Bohr’s
model
of
the
hydrogen
atom
didn’t
clearly
 explain
the
electron
structure
of
other
atoms
 –  Electrons
in
very
specific
locaWons,
principal
energy
 levels
 –  Wave
properWes
of
electrons
conflict
with
specific
 locaWon
 •  Schrödinger
developed

equaWons
that
took
into
 account
the
parWcle
nature
and
the
wave
nature
 of
the
electrons
 Quantum
mechanics
 •  Schrodinger
equaWon
(1926)
 –  It
describes
the
wave
properWes
of
an
electron
in
terms
of
its
 posiWon,
mass,
total
energy,
and
potenWal
energy
 H
=
the
hamiltonian
operator
 E
=
energy
of
the
electron
 Ψ
=
wave
funcWon
 •  The
uncertainty
principle
(Heisenberg
principle).
(1927)
 –  Impossible
to
know
exactly
both
the
momentum
and
the
posiWon
 of
the
electron
at
the
same
instant
in
Wme.
 –  Probability
of
finding
the
electron
(orbital).
 Schrödinger
equaWon.
 •  The
equaWon
is
based
on
the
wave
funcWon,
Ψ,
 which
describes
an
electron
wave
in
space.
in
other
 words
it
describes
the
behavior
of
an
electron
in
a
 region
of
space
called
an
atomic
orbital.

 H
=
the
hamiltonian
operator
 E
=
energy
of
the
electron
 Ψ
=
wave
funcWon
 WavefuncWon
Ψ
 –  The
wavefuncWon
Ψ,
soluWon
of
Schrödinger
equaWon
 describes
the
behavior
of
an
electron
in
a
region
of
 space
called
atomic
orbital.
 –  The
probability
of
finding
an
electron
at
a
given
point
 in
space
is
determined
from
the
funcMon
Ψ2.
 –  Energy
values
associated
with
parWcular
wavefuncWons.
 ParWcle
in
a
box
 a
 a
 •  The
parWcle
in
a
box
model
(also
known
as
the
infinite
potenWal
well
or
the
infinite
 square
well)
describes
a
parWcle,
which
is
free
to
move
in
a
small
space
surrounded
 by
impenetrable
barriers.

 •  One
dimension
only
and
the
potenWal
energy
V(x)
within
the
box
is
equal
to
0.
 •  This
means
that
the
parWcle
is
completely
trapped
inside
the
box,
no
forces
are
 acWng
on
the
it
inside
the
box.
 Difference
between
classical
and
 quantum
mechanics:
 •  In
classical
system,
the
parWcle
is
no
more
likely
to
be
found
at
 one
posiWon
than
another.

 •  However,
when
the
well
becomes
very
narrow
(on
the
scale
of
 a
few
nanometers),
quantum
effects
become
important.

 •  The
parWcle
may
only
occupy
certain
posiWve
energy
levels
and
 it
can
never
have
zero
energy,
meaning
that
the
parWcle
can
 never
"sit
sWll".

 •  AddiWonally,
it
is
more
likely
to
be
found
at
certain
posiWons
 than
at
others,
depending
on
its
energy
level.
The
parWcle
may
 never
be
detected
at
certain
posiWons,
known
as
spaWal
nodes.
 ParWcle
in
a
box
 Total
soluWon

 •  Awer
normalizaWon

 The
squared
wave
funcWons
are
the
probability
 densiWes,
and
they
show
the
difference
 between
classical
and
quantum
mechanical
 behavior.
 Classical
mechanics
predict
that
the
electron
 has
equal
probability
of
being
at
any
point
in
 the
box.
 The
wave
nature
of
the
electron
gives
it
 extremes
of
high
and
low
probability
at
 different
locaWon
in
the
box
 •  The
parWcle‐in‐a‐box
example
shows
how
a
wave
 funcWon
operates
in
one
dimension.
 •  MathemaWcally,
atomic
orbitals
are
discrete
soluWons
 of
the
three‐dimensional
Schrodinger
equaWons.
 •  The
same
methods
used
for
the
one‐dimensional
box
 can
be
expanded
to
three
dimensions
for
atoms.
 Polar
Coordinates
 Ψ
consists
of
a
radial
component
R(r)
and
an
angular
component
A(θ,ϕ).
 The
hydrogen
atom
 •  The
soluWon
of
the
Schrodinger
equaWon
for
the
hydrogen
 atom
is
a
formidable
mathemaWcal
problem.
 •  The
soluWon
is
managed
by
separaWng
the
variables
so
that
 the
wave
funcWon
is
represented
by
the
product.
 •  The
separaWon
leads
to
three
equaWons
for
the
three
spaWal
 variables,
and
their
soluWon
give
rise
to
three
quantum
 numbers
associated
with
the
hydrogen
energy
levels
(n,
l,
 ml).
 Hydrogen
Schrodinger
EquaWon
 •  The
electron
in
the
hydrogen
atom
sees
a
 spherically
symmetric
potenWal.
The
potenWal
 energy
is
simply
that
of
a
point
charge.
 V(r)
=
 Hydrogen
Schrodinger
EquaWon
 •  The
hydrogen
atom
soluWon
requires
finding
 soluWons
to
the
separated
equaWons
which
 obey
the
constraints
on
the
wavefuncWon.
 •  The
hydrogen
Schrodinger
equaWon
is
 separable
and
collecWng
all
the
radius‐ dependent
terms
and
seqng
them
equal
to
a
 constant
gives
the
radial
equaWon
 Quantum Numbers from Hydrogen Equations
 •  The
hydrogen
atom
soluWon
requires
finding
soluWons
to
the
 separated
equaWons
which
obey
the
constraints
on
the
 wavefuncWon.

 •  The
soluWon
to
the
radial
equaWon
can
exist
only
when
a
 constant
which
arises
in
the
soluWon
is
restricted
to
integer
 values.
This
gives
the
principal
quantum
number:
 Quantum
numbers
(summary)
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/03/2011 for the course CHEM 113A taught by Professor Professornotknown during the Spring '09 term at San Jose State University .

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