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american military history final terms

american military history final terms - Professionalization...

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Professionalization in the U.S. Army, 1865-1917 After Civil war US army progressively declined in size and idea of amateurism dead In army main problem lack of rotation between staff and line officers staff officers unsympathetic to field and visa versa – changed by early 20 th century 6 attributes of professionalism 1. Full-timeand useful (one who serves continuous social need) 2. lifetime calling, (calling by practioners), 3. embodies professional standard (occupation is organized and professionals control standards) 4. formal/professional education (such as graduate school) 5. service orientation (loyalty to standards and clients) 6. collective autonomy (become trustworthy) Differentiation between political leadership and military management, and subordination of military management to political leadership Establishment of graduate military schools (naval and army war college) White Victory in Indian Wars: Most sustained military operation in US history (1607-1896) Army officers thought Indians were racially inferior and an enemy Tactics – total war (massacre, destroy food and shelter) campaign in winter when Indians were vulnerable Plains Indians were great light cav and we used converging columns and other Indians to beat them in stationary Indian camps Red River War, Sioux War or North Plains War, and War against Apache Last was apache campaigned ended in 1886 How we killed Indian – commercial buffalo hunting, RR let settlers move on instead of through plains and moved troops there, and superior white numbers and white technology Trap door Springfield, Krag-Jorgenson, 1903 Springfield, Garand M-1: Springfield – outdated – used black powder which got rifle dirty, created smoke and gave away position and decreased muzzle velocity Krag – 1893 – good, all regulars used by 1897, smokeless 1903- .30 caliber, stripper clip fed, bolt action, much like mouser rifle M-1- 1935 – semi automatic, very accurate, clipped Naval War College: SB Luce sponsored start of Naval War College of Newport, Rhode Island in 1884 beginning of military graduate education Luce wisely hired A.T. Mahan to teach there Alfred Thayer Mahan: Institutionalized study of professional naval development Major pts o Object of naval strategy to control the sea o Commerce raiding is useless
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o US needs offensive (battleship navy) Emphasizes lines of communication (sea communication single most important thing about national strategy Felt strategic places are important (strong, access to military resources, favorable geographic location) To control sea must destroy enemy war fleet, concentration of mass important Like Napoleon beloved in climactic battle Thought once you got control of sea everything else would follow Most famous book “influence of sea power on history” Criticism: o doctrines better suited to wood navy (overlooked engines and subs) o didn’t give much thought to how much geography played part in Britain being a naval
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