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final terms - P rofessionalization in the U.S Army...

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Professionalization in the U.S. Army, 1865-1917 The Civil War led to the belief that we should no longer have amateurism in the military. Within the army and navy there was a growing level of professionalization and also a growth of cultivation of study. In the army the main problem was the lack of rotation between staff and line officers, thus staff officers were unsympathetic to field and vice versa. There existed 6 criteria: Full-timeand useful (one who serves continuous social need), lifetime calling, (calling by practioners), embodies professional standard (occupation is organized and professionals control standards), formal/professional education (such as graduate school), service orientation (loyalty to standards and clients), and collective autonomy (become trustworthy). The most important factors of professionalization were the differentiation between political leadership and military management, and subordination of military management to political leadership. The direction of armed forces was a learned skill, and command was a collective work of a mutual agreement among officers. White victory in Indian Wars, 1865-1890 This was the most sustained military operation in US History, 1607-1896. Our greed was insatiable and by 1865 we wanted Great Plains, all the Western lands, and Gold that existed. US army officers thought Indians were inferior. We used total war tactics and campaigned in winter when Indians were vulnerable. There were three major wars Red River War, Sioux War or North Plains War, and War against Apache. Several instruments were used to subjugate the Indians—An army with superior numbers and technology, commercial buffalo hunting, and railroads. * Trap Door Springfield, Krag-Jorgenson, 1903 Springfield, Garand M-1 The Trap Door fired with black powder and had a problem of being highly identifiable. Thus in 1892 they adopted the Krag 5-shot repeater. All regulars had it by 1897. It fired smokeless cartridges. The 1903 Springfield replaced the Krag-Jorgensen and was the primary U.S. battle rifle until 1936. It was sent to Europe as the standard U.S. infantry rifle. It had a stipper clip fed, bolt action, and much like mouser rifle. The M1 Garand was the first semi-automatic rifle that fired 10 round clips to be generally issued to the infantry in 1936 and replaced the Krag. It was very accurate. It was used very heavily in WW2 and the Korean War. Naval War College S.B. Luce sponsored the creation of the Naval War College of Newport, Rhode Island in 1884. It was the beginning of military graduate education. Luce wisely hired A.T. Mahan to teach there and for a
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very long time the Naval War College had drunk deeply of Mahan’s ideas. There were no textbooks, so he wrote himself. His naval career was undistinguished and the naval college had an inaugurate study of naval history. Stressed the influence of sea power in history, and sea power relationships to wars of 1812.
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