military_history_review_sheet final

military_history_review_sheet final - American Military...

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American Military History Terms Professionalization in the U.S. Army, 1865-1917: After Civil war US army progressively declined in size and idea of amateurism dead In army main problem lack of rotation between staff and line officers staff officers unsympathetic to field and visa versa – changed by early 20 th century 6 attributes of professionalism: Full time and useful – serves continuing social needs, lifetime calling – ,Embodies professional standards - identify personally with job subculture and professionals themselves control performance standards and recruitment, Professional education - , Service orientation – loyalty to standards of competence and service needs, great deal of collective autonomy – become trustworthy Used more profession training for officers, separation of political sphere from military management Establishment of graduate military schools (naval and army war college) *** White Victory in Indian Wars: Most sustained military operation in US history (1607-1896) Army officers thought Indians were racially inferior and an enemy Tactics – total war (massacre, destroy food and shelter) campaign in winter when Indians were vulnerable Plains Indians were great light cav and we used converging columns and other Indians to beat them in stationary Indian camps Red river war Last was apache campaigned ended in 1886 How we killed Indian – commercial buffalo hunting, RR let settlers move on instead of through plains and moved troops there, and superior white numbers and white technology Trap door Springfield, Krag-Jorgenson, 1903 Springfield, Garand M-1: Springfield – outdated – used black powder which got rifle dirty, created smoke and gave away position and decreased muzzle velocity Krag – 1893 – good, all regulars used by 1897, smokeless 1903- .30 caliber, stripper clip fed, bolt action, much like mouser rifle M-1- 1935 – semi automatic, very accurate, clipped Naval War College: SB Luce sponsored start of naval war college, beginning of military graduate education Alfred Thayer Mahan:
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Institutionalized study of professional naval development Major pts o Object of naval strategy to control the sea o Commerce raiding is useless o US needs offensive (battleship navy) Emphasizes lines of communication (sea communication single most important thing about national strategy Felt strategic places are important (strong, access to military resources, favorable geographic location) To control sea must destroy enemy war fleet, concentration of mass important Like Napoleon beloved in climactic battle Thought once you got control of sea everything else would follow Most famous book “influence of sea power on history” Criticism – doctrines better suited to wood navy (overlooked engines and subs), didn’t give much thought to how much geography played part in Britain being a naval power (we couldn’t guarantee security to both costs) could concentrate all
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military_history_review_sheet final - American Military...

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