04 Chapter 4 Synopsis

04 Chapter 4 Synopsis - Chapter 4 Basic Motivation Concepts...

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Chapter 4 – Basic Motivation Concepts Motivation – Is the willingness to do something and is conditioned by this action’s ability to satisfy some need for the individual Need – Means a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes become attractive. ** An unsatisfied need that we have creates tension, which stimulates drives within the individual. These drives generate a search to find particular goals that, if attained, will satisfy the need and lead to the reduction of tension. Page (48) ** (Exhibit 4-1) Early Theories of Motivation - Page (48) Reasons to know these theories o They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown o Managers use these theories and their terminologies in explaining employee motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory – Page (48-49) Hierarchy of 5 needs in every human being o Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, shelter, sex o Safety needs: security and protection from harm o Social needs: affection, belonging, acceptance and friendship o Esteem needs: Internal factors: self-respect, autonomy and achievement External factors: status, recognition and attention o Self-actualization need: The drive to become what one is able of becoming Growth, achieving one’s potential and self fulfillment Maslow’s Theory would say that, although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. *** High order needs are satisfied internally *** *** Low order needs are satisfied externally ***
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Theory X and Theory Y – Page (50) Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: o Negative view ( Theory X ) Employees dislike work They must be coerced, controlled, or threatened They avoid responsibilities and will seek direction whenever possible Since job security is more important they will show little ambition o Positive View ( Theory Y ) Employees see work as natural as rest or play They will exercise self-direction/control if committed to objectives Average person can learn to accept and seek responsibilities Ability to innovate is not the sole province of those in management Theory X – assumes the lower order needs Theory Y – assumes the higher order needs * McGregor believed that Theory Y were more valid than Theory X * Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory – Page (50-51) (Exhibit 4-3) Also called the motivation-hygiene theory
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04 Chapter 4 Synopsis - Chapter 4 Basic Motivation Concepts...

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