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psychology Study Guide 2

psychology Study Guide 2 - Psychology Study Guide 2 1...

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Psychology Study Guide 2 1. Descriptive Research Methods a. Descriptive designs are observational. b. Field Studies (natural settings) i. Careful observation of behavior ii. Piaget’s observation of kids iii. Ethological approaches (Lorenz and the baby geese) iv. Jane Goodall’s observation of chimpanzee behavior. c. Laboratory Studies (control of settings) i. Case studies- interviews, questioning, reports 1. Freud’s analysis of Anna O. 2. Terr’s study of Chowchilla incident ii. Surveys and Questionnaires (group analyses) 1. Describes data, public opinion and beliefs 2. e.g., pre-screening packet iii. As will all descriptive designs, there is little or no experimenter intervention d. Participant observation and ways used in psychology 2. Variables a. Independent Variables i. factors in an experiment that are manipulated ii. each factor has at least 2 levels iii. The effect of caffeine (independent) on perceptual acuity (dependent) b. Subject Variables i. factors are fixed and linked with subject (gender, age) ii. don’t confuse these with independent variables c. Dependent Variables i. what is measured in an experiment (the data) ii. Driving ability (dependent) as a function of cell phone use (independent) d. Control Variables i. factors that are constant or randomized across conditions e. Confounding Variables i. factors not expected and not controlled that may have affected the results... 3. Scientific Method in Research a. Develop theory (i. e., general principles) about behavior.
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