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Unformatted text preview: History 5 Lecture 19 Introduction The Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa In order to prevent a war over African territories, European nations held a conference Agreed to create extensive free trade zones, especially the Congo and Niger rivers Principle of Effectivity in order for a European nation to claim a territory, they have to effectively control that territory, have government etc. New Imperialism Many ways fundamentally different than old imperialism Continuities with Old Imperialism Continuities with the seventeenth century The Dutch East India Company went bust and so the Dutch made Indonesia a colony Massive popular rebellion of Indians against British control British assumed total control and Queen Victoria was crowned Empress of India One of the most important British Indian exports was opium, which they sold to China Chinese tried to block this trade which resulted in two opium wars British took control of Hong Kong Early interventions in Africa The French conquest of Algeria Made Algeria not a colony, but legally a part of metropolitan France The Dutch colonize South Africa and was later annexed by the British Both European nations fought dozens of wars Zulu War and Boar War Empire in the Age of Nationalism National competition as a rationale for empire For European powers, nationalism assumed that the new nation-states could prove themselves by taking colonies like the older states like Britain Africa had to be divided up quickly because it was about competition, in a way that wasnt true in Old Imperialism In old, it was not a competition, maybe an economic competition but not to prove yourself The emergence of colonial nationalisms The Europeans exported to their colonies the idea of nationalism that you have a destiny and rights to self-determination Indian National Congress Taught Indians to believe in themselves as a nation...
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- Spring '08