HW1_sol - Chapter 2 The Data of Macroeconomics 7 (c) The...

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(c) The share going to government consumption purchases rose sharply from 1950 to 1980 but has receded somewhat since then. (d) Net exports, which were positive in 1950, were substantially negative in 2005. (e) The share going to national defense purchases fell from 1980 to 2005. (f) The share going to state and local purchases rose from 1950 to 1980. (g) Imports have grown rapidly relative to GDP. 6. a. i. Nominal GDP is the total value of goods and services measured at current prices. Therefore, Nominal GDP 2000 = ( P × Q ) + ( P × ) = ($50,000 × 100) + ($10 × 500,000) = $5,000,000 + $5,000,000 = $10,000,000. Nominal GDP 2010 = ( × ) + ( × ) = ($60,000 × 120) + ($20 × 400,000) = $7,200,000 + $8,000,000 = $15,200,000. ii. Real GDP is the total value of goods and services measured at constant prices. Therefore, to calculate real GDP in 2010 (with base year 2000), multi- ply the quantities purchased in the year 2010 by the 2000 prices: Real GDP 2010 = ( × ) + ( × ) = ($50,000 × 120) + ($10 × 400,000) = $6,000,000+ $4,000,000 = $10,000,000. Real GDP for 2000 is calculated by multiplying the quantities in 2000 by the prices in 2000. Since the base year is 2000, real GDP 2000 equals nominal GDP 2000 , which is $10,000,000. Hence, real GDP stayed the same between 2000 and 2010. iii. The implicit price deflator for GDP compares the current prices of all goods and services produced to the prices of the same goods and services in a base year. It is calculated as follows: Implicit Price Deflator 2010 = . Using the values for Nominal GDP 2010 and real GDP 2010 calculated above: Implicit Price Deflator 2010 = = 1.52. This calculation reveals that prices of the goods produced in the year 2010 increased by 52 percent compared to the prices that the goods in the economy sold for in 2000. (Because 2000 is the base year, the value for the implicit price deflator for the year 2000 is 1.0 because nominal and real GDP are the same for the base year.) iv. The consumer price index (CPI) measures the level of prices in the economy. The CPI is called a fixed-weight index because it uses a fixed basket of goods over time to weight prices. If the base year is 2000, the CPI in 2010 is an average of prices in 2010, but weighted by the composition of goods produced in 2000. The CPI 2010 is calculated as follows: Chapter 2 The Data of Macroeconomics 7 2000 cars 2000 cars 2000 bread 2000 bread 2010 cars 2010 cars 2010 bread 2010 bread 2000 cars 2010 cars 2000 bread 2010 bread Nominal GDP 2010 Real GDP 2010 $15,200,000 $10,000,000
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CPI 2010 = = = = 1.6. This calculation shows that the price of goods purchased in 2010 increased by 60 percent compared to the prices these goods would have sold for in 2000. The CPI for 2000, the base year, equals 1.0. b. The implicit price deflator is a Paasche index because it is computed with a chang- ing basket of goods; the CPI is a Laspeyres index because it is computed with a fixed basket of goods. From (6.a.iii), the implicit price deflator for the year 2010 is 1.52, which indicates that prices rose by 52 percent from what they were in the year 2000. From (6.a.iv.), the CPI for the year 2010 is 1.6, which indicates that prices rose by 60 percent from what they were in the year 2000.
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course ECON 101b taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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HW1_sol - Chapter 2 The Data of Macroeconomics 7 (c) The...

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