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APS111-11-Broader Considerations 1 and 2-Sept 22-23

APS111-11-Broader Considerations 1 and 2-Sept 22-23 -...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/18/11 Broader Considera,ons 1 and 2 APS111: Engineering Strategies and Prac2ce I Fall 2011 Prof. Philip Byer, Ph.D., P.Eng. Objec,ves for today and tomorrow Understand need to iden2fy and incorporate into design: –  Concerns of a broad range of stakeholders –  Economic, environmental, social and human factors over the life ­cycle of the design for sustainable development –  Ways to enhance posi2ve and avoid or minimize nega2ve impacts –  Consulta2on and teamwork –  Service environment of stakeholders Lessons from the past 1 9/18/11 Sustainable Development   Development “that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future genera2ons to meet their own needs.”   Three pillars: –  Environment –  Economy –  Society By thinking broadly and crea2vely, design can be good economically, environmentally and socially Win  ­ Win  ­ Win They Do IT in Other Ci,es 2 9/18/11 New solu,ons for 21st century: Industrial ecology Systems view, e.g. use waste from one process as input to another process. Better for Environment and for Economy. Sustainable toilets! Other examples: 3 9/18/11 Who cares about design? Designer Client User Other Stakeholders Stakeholders: People (individuals and groups) that have an interest (stake) in the design                   Client Users and customers Suppliers Workers Public Governments NGOs (Non ­governmental organiza2ons) Local residents who may be affected, etc. … 4 9/18/11 Stakeholder interests = design objec,ves and constraints   Economic (Ec)   Environmental (En)   Social (S)   Human factors (HF)   Ethical (Et)   Legal (L) As well as Technical Challenge for design team is to clarify stakeholder objectives and constraints Ultimately leads to a better design! Example: Household waste recycling Example: Household waste recycling Stakeholders (some): Objec2ves & Constraints:   City   Residents   Collec2on workers 5 9/18/11 Example: St. George St. crossing Consulta,on and teamwork Service environment of stakeholders Condi2ons that form the context that can affect the design:   Physical: temperature, humidity,…   Human: economic, cultural, psychological, educa2onal, …   Virtual: other equipment 6 9/18/11 Mr. Bean at the Beach More on:   Economic   Environmental impacts   Social impacts   Human factors Economic issues for: Clients, e.g.:   Private company: Maximize profits = Revenues – Costs Users, e.g.:   Purchasers: Minimize costs Other stakeholders, e.g.:   Workers: Maximize income   Local residents: Minimize loss of property value Also economic constraints, e.g.:   Budgets of client and purchasers (affordability)   Make a profit 7 9/18/11 Benefits and Costs Over en2re life of what is being designed  Ini2al, $  Ongoing, $ per 2me period, e.g. $/year  Final, $ Electric or hybrid automobile   Ini2al (one ­2me) costs, $   Ongoing (recurring) costs, $/2me period   Final (end of life) costs Look for ways to reduce economic costs 8 9/18/11 Consider all types of costs and benefits as integral part of design process Sustainability will come only when engineers also assess and incorporate into design decisions the long ­term environmental and social implica2ons Environmental costs   Impacts on living organisms   Impacts on natural resources Assess environmental effects from “cradle to grave” 9 9/18/11 Life ­cycle assessment (LCA) Look for ways to enhance posi,ve and reduce nega,ve environmental impacts over life cycle of product Social impacts 10 9/18/11 Human factors Two of five levels:   Psychological: informa2onal content/structure, cause/effect rela2ons   Physical: shape, size, weight, colour,, material In Mod B: Required reading up to page 155 Interrela,onships SOCIAL IMPACTS " ECONOMIC IMPACTS" BIOPHYSICAL IMPACTS Understanding risks 11 9/18/11 Who cares about design? Designer Client User Other Stakeholders Balancing objec,ves and interests of the various stakeholders Examples:   Lower costs vs safer working conditions   Lower costs vs less environmental pollution Consider the views of broader stakeholders early in design process. Can help:   Reduce longer term costs, e.g. lawsuits   Reduce unacceptable environmental and social costs   Avoid lengthy delays or shutdown by stakeholders   Costly overruns   Avoid major revisions late in process   Bring out useful ideas that also help meet client objective Far better to address needs and interest of the range of stakeholders from early in design process rather than commit resources to a flawed design Key points 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  Sustainable development should be an overall objec2ve for design. Economy, Environment and Society are the three pillars of sustainable development. There are generally a broad set of stakeholders with various interests: economic, environmental, societal and human factors, and legal and ethical concerns. They have a range of objec2ves and constraints that need to be considered. These stakeholders can help iden2fy and encourage addi2onal design alterna2ves to help address their interests. Consulta2on with stakeholders needed to understand their interests and concerns. Interdisciplinary design teams generally needed. Service environment of stakeholders can affect the design. 12 9/18/11 Key points con,nued 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Economic, environmental, social and human factors should be considered over the life cycle of what is being designed. Life ­cycle economic impacts can be broken into ini2al, ongoing and final costs and benefits. Life ­cycle assessment addresses the environmental effects of a product, process or ac2vity from “cradle to grave.” There are a range of types of social impacts that can result from design decisions. Two types of human factors are physical and psychological. Look for ways to enhance posi2ve impacts and avoid or minimize nega2ve impacts. 13 ...
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