PA44-180 Study Guide

PA44-180 Study Guide - Henley Aviation, LLC PA44-180 Piper...

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Henley Aviation, LLC PA44-180 Piper Seminole 1 The Problem of Asymmetric Thrust When a Multi-engine aircraft with engines not mounted on the longitudinal axis loses an engine, there will be unbalanced forces and turning moments about the center of gravity. The following directional control and performance problems will result: Pitch Down The loss of induced airflow over the horizontal stabilizer results in less negative lift from the tail and causes the nose to pitch down. To compensate for this pitch down, additional back pressure is required. Roll toward the Dead Engine The loss of airflow created by the propeller (accelerated slip stream) over the dead engine wing results in a loss of lift on that wing. This loss of lift causes a roll toward the dead engine and will require additional aileron deflection into the operating engine. Yaw toward the Dead Engine The loss of one engine will result in asymmetric thrust being produced. This will cause the aircraft to yaw toward the dead engine and will require additional rudder pressure on the working side. “Dead-Foot, Dead-Engine” Engine Inoperative Climb Performance Climb performance is dependent on the excess power needed to overcome drag. When a twin- engine airplane loses an engine, the airplane loses 50% of its available power. This power loss results in a loss of approximately 80% of the aircraft’s excess power and climb performance. Drag is a major factor relative to the amount of excess power available. An increase in drag (such as the loss of one engine) must be offset by additional power. This additional power is now taken from the excess power, making it unavailable to aid the aircraft in the climb. When an engine is lost, we must maximize thrust (full power) and minimize drag (flaps and gear up, prop feathered, etc.) in order to achieve optimum single - engine climb performance. Drag Factors on the Piper Seminole Full Flaps: -400FPM approx. Windmilling Prop: -400FPM approx. Gear Extended : -150 FPM approx.
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Henley Aviation, LLC PA44-180 Piper Seminole 2 Terms and Definitions Single Engine Service Ceiling The maximum density altitude at which the single engine best rate of climb airspeed (Vyse) will produce a 50 FPM rate of climb with the critical engine inoperative. Single Engine Absolute Ceiling The maximum density altitude that an aircraft can attain or maintain with the critical engine inoperative. Vyse and Vxse are equal at this altitude. Sideslip Versus Zero Sideslip During flight with one engine inoperative, pilot technique is important to maximize aircraft performance. An important technique is to establish a Zero Sideslip Condition. Sideslip Condition When an engine failure occurs, thrust from the operating engine yaws the aircraft. To maintain aircraft heading with the wings level, rudder must be applied toward the operating engine. This rudder force results in the sideslip condition by moving the nose of the aircraft in a direction resulting in the misalignment of the fuselage and the relative wind. This condition usually allows
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PA44-180 Study Guide - Henley Aviation, LLC PA44-180 Piper...

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