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Unformatted text preview: Contents V Solving Polynomial Equations 1 V.A Newtons Method in the Special Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 V.B General Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 V Solving Polynomial Equations V.1 V Solving Polynomial Equations Suppose P ( x ) is a polynomial. We wish to consider the following problems. Problem A . Find all the roots of P ( x ) in a given interval [ a,b ] to a given accuracy. Problem B . Find all the roots of P ( x ) to a given accuracy. First we show how to solve problem A in a very special case, namely when P ( x ) has no roots in [ a,b ] and P ( a ) and P ( b ) are nonzero and have opposite signs. Then we show how to solve the problem in general. V.A Newtons Method in the Special Case The algorithm we use in the special case is Newtons method . The fundamental observation by Isaac Newton (16431727) was that if we know approximately where a root r of P is located, we may evaluate P at some point x nearby. Usually, P ( x ) 6 = 0, but from x to the root r , the graph has to run from P ( x ) to 0. As the tangent line to the graph of P at ( x ,P ( x )) tends to point in the same direction as the graph, why not follow the tangent line until it intercepts the x axis? The real stroke of genius was then to take x 1 , the x intercept of the tangent at ( x ,P ( x )), as the new guess and to repeat the step, following now the tangent to the graph of P at ( x 1 ,P ( x 1 )) and to keep going! x y (x , P(x )) (x 1 , P(x 1 )) x x 1 x 2 r tangent through (x , P(x )) tangent through (x 1 , P(x 1 )) Now we make things precise. Theorem: Suppose that P ( x ) is a polynomial such that V.A Newtons Method in the Special Case V.2 (i) P ( x ) has no root in [ a,b ]. (ii) P ( a ) and P ( b ) are nonzero and have opposite signs, that is, P ( a ) P ( b ) < 0. Then P ( x ) has a exactly one root r in ( a,b ) and there is an algorithm to approximate r to any desired accuracy. Proof: First we prove the assertion that P ( x ) has a single root. Since P ( a ) and P ( b ) have opposite signs, the IVT tells us that P ( x ) must vanish at some point r ( a,b ); i.e. there is at least one root. On the other hand, Rolles theorem says that two roots of P ( x ) are separated by a root of P ( x ). Since P ( x ) has no roots in [ a,b ], P ( x ) cannot have two roots in [ a,b ], it has at most one root. The algorithm to approximate the root, r , consists of the following steps. Step 1 (Bounding derivatives): Find constants M 1 and M 2 so that < M 1  P ( x )  for all x [ a,b ] and  P 00 ( x )  M 2 for all x [ a,b ] . (Important Note:  P ( x )  has to be bounded from below , whereas  P 00 ( x )  has to be bounded from above !) Let K = M 2 2 M 1 and choose a constant h > 0 so that Kh 1 ....
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course MATH 16121 taught by Professor Rachelbelinsky during the Spring '11 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.
 Spring '11
 RACHELBELINSKY

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