7_Fallacies

7_Fallacies - Asking the Right Questions, 9th ed. Chapter...

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Asking the Right Questions , 9 th ed. Spring 2011 Chapter 7: Are There Any Fallacies in the Reasoning? Fallacies are errors in reasoning o they violate standards of reasoning o they are unreliable producers of justified beliefs (i.e., they lead to unjustified beliefs) o the error might not be intentional – a fallacy is not an error in motivation or intention typically occur in recognizable patterns or general types are psychologically (but not logically!) persuasive o they resemble correct reasoning – the critical thinker must learn how to distinguish between sound and fallacious reasoning – one way to do this is to become aware of the possible fallacies that could be committed in argumentation ARQ suggests that the errors that fallacies commit have three basic sources: 1. Faulty or illegitimate assumption 2. Irrelevance 3. Assuming truth of conclusion This taxonomy of source allows us to classify the fallacies in each of these categories. It also allows us to find other fallacies that we do not know the names of—we simply determine the source of the mistake in reasoning. Ad hominem The conclusion of arguments that commit this fallacy is that the person’s argument or reasoning should be rejected, ignored, etc. The point of these fallacious arguments is to cast doubt on the person’s reasoning. The conclusion may be explicitly stated or implicitly implied. It is fallacious because the character or interests of the person making the
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7_Fallacies - Asking the Right Questions, 9th ed. Chapter...

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