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2100 1C-D Cotton Rayon Acetate

2100 1C-D Cotton Rayon Acetate - Chapter 1 Part C Cotton...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1, Part C: Cotton TXMI 2100 Cotton 1. Fiber Structure 2. Fiber Properties 3. Fabric Care and Uses 1. Composition of cotton fiber (% of dry weight) Cellulose Protein Pectic substance Ash Wax Sugars Others 95.0 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.4 Microfibrillar structure 2. Fiber Macro Structure Cuticle Primary wall Secondary wall Lumen Morphological structure of cotton fiber Cross section of cotton fiber Cross-section of fiber bundle showing both mature and immature fibers Convoluted dimensional structure Curticle It is composed of waxes, pectin, proteins, and other non cellulosics impurities Hydrophobic Lumen Central opening of the fiber providing the inner cell boundary Channel of nutrients during fiber growth Lumen occupies 5 % of the cross sectional area 3. Cotton Fiber Properties Strength: medium (3.0-4.9 g/d) 10-20% stronger when wet Elongation/Elasticity: low Resiliency: low, poor wrinkle-resistance Moisture regain: high (7-8%) Absorbency: high Static charge: low Flammability: high Dimensional Stability: good (fiber); poor (woven fabric) Cotton Fiber Properties Resistance to strong acids: poor Resistance to strong bases: high Resistance to insects: generally good Resistance to fungus/bacteria: poor Resistance to chlorine bleach: good if controlled Soil resistance: below average 4. Care Machine-wash and tumble-drying All purpose detergents (alkaline condition) can be used Chlorine bleach can be used Hot water in laundering and high temperature pressing/drying O.K. Wrinkle formation Ironing Wrinkle resistant cotton garments Color transfer during home laundering 5. New Trends Biotechnology: insect resistance and pesticide tolerance Introduced commercially in 1996 1999: accounted for more than 50% of U.S. cotton Transgenic Technology Genetically engineered varieties resistant to worms, herbicides, or both Drought-Tolerance Genes U.G.A. geneticist Andrew Patterson, and plant physiologist Hugh Earl (2002) Precision Agriculture Remotely sensed imagery to manage crop production Variable Rate Technology (VRT): precise chemical amounts Information on the Web http://centrum.vslib.cz/sekceB/zprava/prilohy1/1-1.pdf http://msa.ars.usda.gov/la/srrc/cotton/cotupcl.html http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/09/04714907/0471490709.pdf http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-92698-142717/unrestricted/DP.PDF http://www.ntcresearch.org/pdf-rpts/AnRp00/C97-C03.pdf Chapter 1, Part D: Manufactured Cellulosic Fibers: Rayon, Lyocell and Acetate TXMI 2100 1. Rayon and Lyocell Rayon: Man-Made Cellulosic Fiber Invention: 1924 Products: Viscose rayon High tenacity rayon Lyocell Raw material: wood pulp Fiber Property Tenacity: low (dry: 1.0-2.5) Tenacity (wet): lower (0.5-1.5) Resiliency: poor Elongation and elasticity: low Flammability: high Moisture Regain/absorbency: High Hand: good Drape property: very good Dyeability: excellent Other properties: similar to cotton Lyocell: Another Man-made Cellulose Fiber (Subcategory of Rayon) Raw material: wood pulp Solvent for spinning: different, not toxic and fully recycled, "green" fiber Fiber formation: wet-spinning Higher tenacity than Rayon More "fuzzy" fiber surface and lower luster Lyocell Uses Apparel: Blouses, coats, dresses, jackets, lingerie, linings, millinery. rainwear, slacks, sports shirts, sportswear, suits, ties, work clothes. RAYON Home Furnishings: Bedspreads, blankets, carpets, curtains, draperies, sheets, slipcovers, tablecloths, upholstery. Other: Industrial products, medical,: surgical products, non-woven products, tire cord. LYOCELL Apparel: Dresses, slacks and coats Uses of Rayon Fabric Care Dry-clean recommended Hand wash with care and regular detergent No tumble dry Chlorine bleach OK if carefully controlled References Collier, J. Billie and Phyllis G. Tortora. Understanding Textiles. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001 Lewin, Menachem and Stephen B. Sello. Handbook of Fiber Science and Technology: Volume 2. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1983 Trotman, R. E.. Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibers. London: Charles Griffin, 1975 Asahi Kasei. <http://asahi-kasie.co.jp/>. Amazon.com. <http://www.amazon.com/>. Cordenka. <http://cordenka.com/>. Enka. <http://enka.de/>. Fabelta Ninove N.V. <http://fabelta.be/>. Fabric University. <http://www.fabriclink.com>. Fiber Source. <http://afma.org>. Glanzstoff Austria. <http://glanzstoff.com/>. Lenzing A.G.. <http://lenzing.at/>. Office of Textiles and Apparel. <http://otexa.ita.doc.gov>. Tencel. <http://tencel.com/>. 2. Modified Cellulose Fibers: Acetate & Triacetate History 1905 Camille & Henri Dreyfus develop the first commercial manufacturing process (film) 1913 Dreyfus brothers started producing acetate fibers 1924 - Celanese Corporation was the first to commercially produce cellulose acetate 1955 Celanese Corporation began largescale production 1954 FTC established separate categories for rayon & acetate & triacetate Acetate & triacetate: derivative cellulose fibers Rayon: regenerated cellulose fiber Physical Properties Strength: lower than Rayon Acetate: dry = 1.4, wet = 0.9 Triacetate: dry = 1.1-1.5, wet = 0.8-1.0 Elastic recovery: significantly higher than Rayon Elongation: significantly higher than Rayon Resiliency: significantly higher than Rayon Acetate: lower Triacetate: higher Abrasion resistance: lower Physical Properties Moisture regain: lower Both are filament fiber Appearance: white, irregular cross-section shape Luster: high Dimensional stability: good Silky hand Elegant drape property Appearance of Acetate/Triacetate Acetate Triacetate Physical Properties (3) Static charge: higher Resistance to heat: lower, both are thermoplastic, flammable with melting Resistance to microorganism and insects: higher Uses Fashion designers choose acetate and acetate blends fabrics for their drape property, brilliant color range, and comfort Major acetate fiber uses: blouses, dresses, coat linings, pillow covers, window coverings, & decorative trim Market trend Trend toward more casual dress has eroded the demand for cellulose acetate In cost-sensitive areas, acetate linings have lost share to lower-cost polyester fabrics 1996-2001: worldwide demand declined at an annual rate of 9% 2001-2006: Worldwide consumption will continue to decline at an estimated 3% average annual rate Cigarette filter ($2.2 billion vs. $0.6 billion for textiles) is the largest single end use Fabric Care Home laundering with care Dry-clean recommended due to fabric shrinkage Chlorine bleach is OK with careful control Acetone dissolves acetate Lower temperature for drying and pressing References Abstract (2002). SRI Consulting. Retrieved on 10/19/2004 from: http://ceh.sric.sri.com/Enfranme/Report.html Base Polymers & Decomposition (2003). Screen Sound Australia. Retrieved on 10/25/2004 from: http://www.screensound.gov.au Cellulose Acetate (2004, April). Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 from: http://www.mfa.org/_cameo/frontend/material_description.asp Cellulose Triacetate (2003, May). Conservation and Art Material Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on October 24, 2004 from: http://www.mfa.org/_cameo/frontend/material_description.asp Fabric History (2003). Geocities. Retrieved on 10/19/2004 from: http://www.geocities.com/grudik/FabricHistory.htm Joseph, M.L. (1981). Introductory Textile Science. Holt, Rhinehart, & Winston: New York, New York Tortora, P. (1991). Understanding Textiles (4th Ed.) Macmillian Publishing: New York, New York Questions & Answers (2001). Celanese Acetate. Retrieved on 10/19/2004 from: http://www.fabriclink.com/Celanese/Questions.html USA: Celanese Acetate And Sapona Develop Celanna Yarns for Socks (2000). Company Press Release. Retrieved on 10/25/2004 from: http://www.interlogy.com/products/content/article/demo/article ...
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