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Unformatted text preview: TXMI 2100
Chapter 1, Part E: Synthetic Fibers Synthetic Fibers
1. 2. 3. 4. Polyamide: nylon-6,6 and nylon-6 Polyester Acrylic and modacrylic Polyolefin 1. Polyamides Aliphatic polyamides
Nylon-6,6 Nylon-6 Aromatic polyamides
Kevlar Nomex Brief History of Nylon The first synthetic fiber in history a true milestone in polymer chemistry 1935: Dr. Carothers and his group successfully synthesized nylon-6,6 fiber 1938: du Pont announced the commercialization of nylon after 11 years' efforts and $11 million spent on the project 1940: crowd of women pushed and broke store windows when nylon stockings were first put on sale One of the most widely used and most important textile fiber Nylon-6,6 and Nylon-6: High Molecular Orientation High molecular orientation High Strength Nylon Physical Properties Appearance: long, smooth cylinder, circular cross-section (microscopy) Other Nylon Cross-Section Shapes Nylon Physical Properties Tenacity: very high (3-9 g/d) decreases under high heat Abrasion resistance: high Elongation and elastic recovery: high Resiliency: high Moisture regain: higher than other synthetic fibers Nylon 6,6: 3.8-4.5%, Nylon 6: 3.5-5.0% Dimensional stability: excellent (except under extreme heat) Nylon Applied in Automobile: High Strength and Abrasion Resistance Nylon Thermal/Chemical Properties Resistance to heat: low nylon-6 is less heat-resistant high resistance to dilute acid and alkaline poor resistance to strong acid Chemical resistance: good Resistance to insects/microorganism: good Uses of Nylon Fibers
Carpet Apparel Industrial Use Other Consumer Uses Nylon Used for Carpet
High abrasion resistance High resiliency/elasticity Lower stain resistance than polypropylene stain-resistant finishes stain removal chemicals 6. Fabric Care Machine washable, tumble drying at normal temperature (avoiding high heat) During ironing (if necessary), use moderate temperature High temperature causes fabric/garment deformation 7. Aramid Fibers: Kevlar and Nomex Developed in the 1970s Extremely high strength and heat resistance Fire-resistant clothing and bullet-proof body amour Chemical Structure of Kevlar Kevlar Properties 3 times the strength of nylon and polyester Heat resistant to 750 degree F Flame resistant (not thermoplastics) Low elongation/high stiffness References Glossary of Rope and Material Terms and Trade Names (2003). Consultancy, design and engineering services in ropes, textiles and marine services. Retrieved on 11/1/2004 from: http://www.tensiontech.com/tools_guides/glossary_terms.html History of DuPont's Nylon Fibers (2003). CHA's History of Dupont's Nylon Fibers. Retrieved on 11/2/2004 from: http://www.cha4mot.com/p_jc_dph.html Joseph, M. (1981). Introductory Textile Science. Holt, Rhinehart and Winston: New York, New York Kannadaguli, M., & Kotra, R. (2004). Nylon Fibers. Educational Research. Retrieved on 11/2/2004 from: http://www.engr.utk.edu/mse/pages/Textiles/Nylon%20fibers.htm Nylon Fiber (2003). Fiber Source. Retrieved on 11/2/2004 from: http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/nylon.htm Process Economics Program Report 941/2 (2003). SRI Consulting. Retrieved on 11/1/2004 from: http://pep.sric.sri.com/Public/Reports/Phase_IX/RP0942.html Speaker (2004). Pioneer. Retrieved on 11/2/2004 from: http://www.pioneerelectronics.com Textile Researchers Produce Super-strong Nylon Fibers (2004). Fashion & Style. Retrieved on 11/1/2004 from: http://www.onlypunjab.com/fullstory1004 2. Polyester (PET) W.H. Carothers discovered techlogy for polymerization of polyester British scientists created the first polyester fiber in 1941 Du Pont bought all legal rights for polyester fiber in 1946 (trade name: "Dacron") 1950s: Polyester found immediate consumer acceptance because of its easy maintenance and excellent crease W.H. Carothers (18961937) Melt Spinning (Polyester, Nylon and Polyolefin The chips are put into hopper resevoirs for melting Polymer is heated, melten and extruded through the spinnerets, and to form fibers in cool air Filament and Staple Fibers The fibers are hot stretched to increase molecular orientation (drawing) The fibers then wound onto cones as filaments The fibers can be cut into staple lengths. PET Yarns Filament yarns: long polyester filaments , twisted Spun yarns: Long filament fiber is cut into staple fiber, then spun to create a yarn made up of short staple fibers. PET Fiber Appearance A variety of cross sections, (round, trilobal, pentalobal, and hollow) Smooth surface, high luster Pigments (delusterants) used to increase whiteness and to reduce luster Dacron PET Fiber Properties
Tenacity: high, not effected by moisture
Regular: 4.0-7.0 g/d High tencity: 6.3-9.5 g/d Abrsion resistance: high (pilling) Elongation and elastic recovery: high Resiliency: excellent Moisture regain/absorbency: low (0.2-0.8%) Static charge: high Thermal Properties More heat resistant than nylon melting point 480-550F Flammable, but less than cotton Applications Apparel Often blended with other fibers, especially cotton, rayon, wool Essentially every form of clothing (dresses, blouses, sportswear, suits, pants, rainwear, lingerie, childrenswear, etc.) 50/50 poly/cotton common for bedding, table cloths, etc. Fiberfill for insulation, pillows, etc. Curtains, draperies, floor coverings, upholstery Nonwovens Tire cords Sails Many others Household Industrial Chemical properties Resistant to acids, alkali, solvents and chlorine bleach Stable to UV light Resistant to insects, fungi and bacteria Polyester Blends
Polyester and cotton Polyester and wool Polyester and rayon Polyester and nylon Fabric Care Machine washable Tumble drying OK Avoiding extreme heat in washing drying and pressing Removing garment from dryer as soon as it stops Read labels for blends and printed fabric New Development: "CRIPY 65" (Mitsubishi Co.)
Sleeping comfortably with sweet scents "Thermolite" (DuPont) DuPont scientists discovered that polar bears have fur with "hollow" hairs for greater insulation. Warmth, comfort, light weight Dries 20% faster than other insulating fibers, and 50% faster than cotton http://www.fabriclink.com/pk/thermolite/home.htm References `Essential Fiber Chemistry'. Mary E Carter. Marcel Dekker, INC. (1971). `New Fibers'.Tatsuya Hongu and Glyn O. phillips. Ellis Horwood. (1990) http://schwartz.eng.auburn.edu/polyester/history.html http://www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/chemach/pop/wh c.html http://www.vectranfiber.com/index1.html http://www.e-next-kuraray.com/html-e/health/uvx/uvx04.html http://schwartz.eng.auburn.edu/polyester/manufacturing.html http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/pet.htm http://www.fabriclink.com/pk/thermolite/home.html ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course TXMI 2100 taught by Professor Yang during the Spring '11 term at University of Georgia Athens.
- Spring '11