2100 3B-Finishing

2100 3B-Finishing - Chapter 3 Dyeing and Finishing of...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles Part II. Textile Finishing TXMI 2100 Mechanical Finishing: Compaction Objective: reducing fabric washing shrinkage Applied to both woven and knitted fabrics Also increasing fabric thickness 1. Chemical Finishing Methods Finishing Applications Finishing using water bath Finishing using foam Drying Curing Pre-cure Post-cure Garment Finishing (A) Methods of Finish Applications Fabric Treatment Padding Garment Treatment Dipping Padding Padding Equipment Fabric Finishes Application Systems Padding: fabric fully saturated with finish solution Padding: most commonly used Garment Dipping Garment Finishes Application Systems Dipping: fabric fully saturated with finish solution Garment finishing: more flexible application system than fabric finishing Foam Finish Applications Foam Finishing 75% of water is replaced by air More energy efficient Lower finishing quality (B) Drying of Fabrics: Tenter Frame Drying of Fabrics (C) Fabric Curing Fabric Pre-cure Fabric Post-cure Garment Post-Cure Sewing Garment dipping with finishes Drying Pressing Curing Garment Pressing before Curing Curing of Garments Continuously Curing of Garments Batchwise 2. Functional Finishing of Textiles: Durable Press of Cotton Applied to fabrics/garment of cotton and other cellulosic fibers A DP finishing agent reacts with cellulose to form crosslinking A catalyst is needed to accelerates the reaction The reaction takes place at elevated temperatures (140-170C, curing) WrinkleFormation: HBonding between Cellulose Molecules DP Finishing: Formation of Covalent Crosslinkages between Cellulose Molecules Durable Press Finishing Cotton and Cotton/Polyester blend Slacks Skirts Shirts Sheets, pillow cases... Knits... Durable Press Finishing Cotton and Cotton/Polyester blend Improving "smooth drying property" Improving wrinkle resistance and wrinkle release property Improving fabric dimensional stability (reducing shrinkage) Woven fabric before DP finishing: ~8% shrinkage Woven fabric after DP finishing: ~2% shrinkage New Nonformaldehyde DP Finishing System (US Patent 6,165,919) Modified Citric Acid: Synergistic Effect Other Effects of DP Finishing on Fabric Properties Reducing Fabric tensile strength Reducing Fabric tearing strength Reducing fabric abrasion resistance May change fabric color/whiteness Reducing absorbency 3. Other Functional Finishes UK Fire-Related Death Statistics (1982-2000) Textile Fiber Flammability Fiber Cotton Polypropylene Rayon Nylon Polyester Wool Modacrylic Poly(vinyl chloride) LOI (%) 18.4 18.6 18.7 20.1 20.6 25.2 26.8 27.1 Fabric Flame Retardant Finishes Durable (remaining effective after 2050 launderings) Semi-durable (remaining effective after 1-5 launderings) Nondurable (no washes) Phosphorus FR Finishes Mechanism Fire (Heat+ Radiation) O2 Flammable Gas Char+H2O+ Nonflammable Gas Organophosphorus FR Finish Fiber Heat Stain/Water Resistant Finishing Stain/Water Resistant Finishing Wax emulsion: forming hydrophobic film on fiber, not durable to home laundering or dry-cleaning Silicone repellents: used on cotton, wool and blends, semi-durable to home laundering or dry-cleaning, more expensive Flurochemical repellents: imparting waterand oil-repellency, durable to home laundering or dry-cleaning, most effective and also most expensive Fabric Softeners Silicone based and polyethylene based To improve abrasion resistance (lubrication) Hydrophobic Applied after dyeing Applied to all fabrics Antimicrobal Finishing Personal Hygiene Medical use as a barrier for bacteria Denim Stone Washing Using Cellulase Enzyme: Cellulase Improving fabric hand Removing surface fibers and improving anti-pilling performance Change shade to achieve desirable appearance (enzyme stone washing of denim) ...
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