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Final Study Guide - Final Study Guide Government Mexico...

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Final Study Guide Government: Mexico: Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) - 500 members elected to non-renewable 3 year terms - Elected by mixed electoral system, 300 elected directly, 200 by PR - No party can win 2/3 or more of the seats in the chamber - Specializes in fiscal policy, i.e. appropriations – No approval needed by Senate - High level of party discipline Senate (Upper House) - 128 Members elected to non-renewable 6 year terms - Elected by mixed system, 96 elected directly, 32 elected by PR - No party can win 2/3 of seats except under very extreme circumstances - Exclusive powers regarding foreign affairs, approves treaties - Can remove state governors/legislators - High party discipline Presidency - Directly elected by a plurality vote to a non renewable 6 year term - Formerly, presidents powers are constrained (during PRI era, president maintained unwritten metaconstitutional powers) - President’s powers are practically and legally limited - Selects cabinet, has decree power over land reform and tariffs regarding international trade - Can veto bills or a request a corrective veto (can be overridden by a 2/3 majority) Federalism - Officially, Mexico is a federal system, but there is a high degree of political centralization - Each level of government has less power than the level above it - Political centralism is seen as a main source for the political stability, but control by the center is far less than commonly assumed - There have been (limited) efforts to de-centralize (1984) Presadencialismo - Connotes broad range of president’s formal and informal powers o Supreme court never found president’s actions unconstitutional
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o Congress never challenged president’s appointees o Presdient had informal powers to unseat government officials o During PRI, president was also the party leader Political Figures: Mexico: Felipe Calderon - Won disputed 2006 election - Before elected president, he was the national president of PAN, a Federal Deputy, and Secretary of Energy for Vicente Fox - Went on the campaign of continuing the economic and social reforms started by President Vicente Fox Vicente Fox - With PRI on decline, Fox ran as a member of PAN and won the 2000 election - Though he ran with PAN, he really represented change, not necessarily the PAN national platform - He was an outsider in his own party, many leaders within PAN didn’t support him Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador - PRD (losing) candidate in the disputed 2006 election - Current mayor of Mexico City - Highly controversial figure: accused of violating a court order in a land dispute, but enjoyed immunity as a political official Ernesto Zedillo - PRI president who renounced the “dedazo,” or the traditional privilege of naming the succeeding president - Won presidential election in 1994, the cleanest election Mexico had ever seen - Stressed rule of law and decentralization of presidential authority.
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