Colonizing2010

Colonizing2010 - The Peopling of Australia and the New...

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The Peopling of Australia and the New World Only modern Homo sapiens spread to the farthest reaches of the world: into Siberia Australia New World (North-Central-South America) Remember, this spread occurred during the Pleistocene, the Ice Age, When glaciation caused low sea levels, allowing some land masses to be joined
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(Kottak 2005 Atlas) Spread of modern H. sapiens
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The Indo-Malaysian Archipelago contains two very different biogeographical regions. The western islands on the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Bali, and Borneo) were joined to each other and to the Asian mainland by landbridges during glacial periods of low sea level. (www.archaeology.org) Hence they supported rich Asian placental mammal faunas and were colonized by Homo erectus , perhaps as early as 1.8 million years ago. Light-colored areas indicate land exposed during glaciation
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The eastern islands (Sulawesi, Lombok, Timor, the Moluccas, and the Philippines) have never been linked by landbridges to either the Sunda Shelf or Australia, or to each other. They had limited mammal faunas, chance arrivals from Asia and Australasia. (www.archaeology.org)
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Although New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania were joined into a single landmass called Sahul, The colonizers of Australia still had to cross water in boats to reach this landmass The longest stretch would have been 43-54 miles
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(mc2.vicnet.net.au) In 1998, the Nale Tasih 2 project used Middle Paleolithic stone tools to build this boat and sail it across the Timor Sea to Australia (Bednarik, Hobman, Rogers 1999)
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Settlement of Australia Earliest sites are along the coasts and along rivers into the interior Controversies: 1. When was Australia settled? 2. By what route was Australia settled? 3. Was there one major wave of settlement, or two?
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Australia The earliest sites of 60,000 ya are in the north: Controversy over how old (only 40,000?) Used radiocarbon dating for 40,000 yr old dates, optical luminescence dating for 60,000 yr old dates Jinmium, a sandstone rockshelter in the Northern Territory, TL to date stone artifacts from lowest level at more than 116,000 years old. Peter Bellwood, www.archaeology.or g
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Because the dates are from TL rather than the more accurate single-grain optical luminescence, many archaeologists question this claim If the Jinmium dates are correct it could be that archaic Homo once lived in Australia, as they did throughout the rest of the tropical and temperate Old World Other northern sites with old dates (>50,000 ya) were dated by optically stimulated luminescence: Malakunanja II Nauwalabila
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Mungo Man and Mungo Woman Willandra Lakes region, Southeastern Australia Now dry lake beds, then was lake where people fished, collected shellfish, and hunted small game. Major drought began 40,000 ya.
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Colonizing2010 - The Peopling of Australia and the New...

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