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Miocene 2010 - Miocene 23-5.5 mya OK here it is the epoch...

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Miocene, 23-5.5 mya OK, here it is -- the epoch of greatest interest in early primate evolution Major continental locations approx. same as today, except North and South America Miocene hominoid fossil localities (Turnbaugh et al. 2002:191)
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Epoch 65 mya 53 mya 36 mya 23 mya 1.8 mya (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cenozoic/cenozoic.html; 22 Feb 2005) 5.5 mya Geologic Time Scale archaic primates (disputed) (Plesiadapiforms) Undisputed primates: prosimians earliest, then anthropoids Anthropoids proliferate: Platyrrhine/Catarrhine split
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Early Miocene (23-16 mya) warm and wet Proconsul was abundant in Africa, 3 species Probably last ancestor to both Old World monkeys and apes/humans (the Catarrhines) Has teeth like ape, but body like monkey. At this time see the first hominoids (ancestors to apes and humans) They had the Y-5 cusp pattern They lived in forests, eating leaves and fruit (Turnbaugh et al. 2002:192)
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The Y-5 cusp pattern is found only among hominoid molars: it separates hominoids from Old World monkeys (Cercopithecoidea) Y-5 cusp pattern anthropoid Bilophodont pattern Old World monkeys Biological Anthropology , 2006, Stanford et al.:284
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