Bipedalism 2009

Bipedalism 2009 - BIPEDALISM Some major changes are...

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BIPEDALISM Some major changes are associated with bipedalism Proportional lengths of various body segments Human legs are much longer For example, human thigh = 20% of body height But in Gorilla only 11% (Turnbaugh et al. 2002:227)
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Let’s start with the head and move down toward the feet (Turnbaugh et al. 2002:226,230) gorilla chimp foramen magnum More centered to balance head on spine under head
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(Whitehead et al. 2005:87) (Smithsonian Institution) Gorilla Human
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(Turnbaugh et al. 2002:226; Whitehead et al. 2005:184)) The human spine has an S-shaped curve, which shortened the overall length of the torso and gives rigidity and balance when standing. By contrast, apes have a relatively straight spine.
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Red line shows line of weight transmission; Box compares length/breadth of iliac blade (Top: Campbell on Talkorigins; Bottom: Turnbaugh et al. 2002:224)
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Human upper legs angle inward from the hip joints, which positioned the knees to
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Simmons during the Spring '06 term at South Carolina.

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Bipedalism 2009 - BIPEDALISM Some major changes are...

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