Early Homo 2010

Early Homo 2010 - Early Homo The earliest hominids(humans...

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Early Homo The earliest hominids (humans) walked bipedally Their brains were still ape-size Even though they walked on two legs, they could still climb trees better than us today How can we tell they are bipedal? Cranial: location of foramen magnum Postcranial: shape of pelvis, knee, foot anatomy
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Hominids (bipedal) Earliest bipedal hominids from around 6 mya Four genera of interest to us: 1. Ardipithecus 5.8-4.4 mya, e Africa 2. Australopithecus 4.2-2.3 mya, e and s Africa 3. Paranthropus 2.5-1.0 mya, e Africa 4. Homo 2.5 mya to present
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Several candidates have been proposed for the first hominid, dating as early as 7 mya in Africa Here I concentrated on Ardipithecus , 5.8-4.4 mya, east Africa Ardipithecus ramidus 4.4 mya
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Following Ardipithecus , at least five species of A ustralopithecus/Paranthropus Generally divided into two types: Gracile: A. anamensis , A. afarensis , A. africanus Robust: P. robustus , P. boisei The gracile australopithecines are thought to have led to our genus, Homo A. afarensis P. boisei
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Early hominids Australopithecus (gracile), some thought to be our ancestors Paranthropus (robust), thought to be a separate lineage that went extinct (Turnbaugh et al. 2002:251) A. africanus A. afarensis P. boisei P. robustus robust gracile
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Artist John Gurche has reconstructed an Australopithecus afarensis face
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Australopithecus afarensis (Stanford et al. 2006:334)
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(Stanford et al. 2006:330) Postcranial comparisons
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At the end of the Pliocene, between 3.2-1.8 mya we find several types of hominid: Australopithecus africanus (gracile) (3.2-2.3 mya) Paranthropus boisei (robust) (2.5-1.4 mya) Paranthropus robustus (robust) (2.5-1.0 mya) Homo habilis (2.5-1.8 mya)
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Homo first appears 2.5 mya in east and south Africa What led us to put this early hominid into our genus? Two related items: 1. Substantially larger brain, 20-50% larger 2. First use of stone tools
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The first species of Homo appear between 3-2 mya. They were reproductively isolated from the two species
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course ANTH 101 taught by Professor Simmons during the Spring '06 term at South Carolina.

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Early Homo 2010 - Early Homo The earliest hominids(humans...

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