Chapter 4 - Reginald H. Garrett Charles M. Grisham Chapter...

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Reginald H. Garrett Charles M. Grisham Chapter 4 Amino Acids
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Chapter 4 “To hold, as ‘twere, the mirror up to nature.” William Shakespeare, Hamlet All objects have mirror images, and amino acids exist in mirror- image forms. Only the L-isomers of amino acids occur commonly in nature. Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon
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Essential Question Why are amino acids uniquely suited to their role as the building blocks of proteins?
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4.1 What Are the Structures and Properties of Amino Acids? Amino acids contain a central tetrahedral carbon atom There are 20 common amino acids Amino acids can join via peptide bonds Several amino acids occur only rarely in proteins Some amino acids are not found in proteins
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4.1 What Are the Structures and Properties of Amino Acids? Figure 4.1 Anatomy of an amino acid. Except for proline and its derivatives, all of the amino acids commonly found in proteins possess this type of structure.
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4.1 What Are the Structures and Properties of Amino Acids? Figure 4.2 Two amino acids can react with loss of a water molecule to form a covalent bond.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids You should know names, structures, pK a values, 3-letter and 1-letter codes Non-polar amino acids Polar, uncharged amino acids Acidic amino acids Basic amino acids
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 Some of the nonpolar (hydrophobic) amino acids.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 Some of the nonpolar (hydrophobic) amino acids.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 Some of the polar, uncharged amino acids.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 Some of the polar, uncharged amino acids.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 The acidic amino acids.
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The 20 Common Amino Acids Figure 4.3 The basic amino acids.
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Several Amino Acids Occur Rarely in Proteins We'll see some of these in later chapters Selenocysteine in many organisms Pyrrolysine in several archaeal species Hydroxylysine , hydroxyproline - collagen Carboxyglutamate - blood-clotting proteins Pyroglutamate – in bacteriorhodopsin GABA , epinephrine, histamine, serotonin act as neurotransmitters and hormones Phosphorylated amino acids – a signaling device
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Several Amino Acids Occur Rarely in Proteins
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Several Amino Acids Occur Rarely in Proteins Figure 4.4 (b) Some amino acids are less common, but nevertheless found in certain proteins. Hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline are found in connective-tissue proteins; carboxy- glutamate is found in blood-clotting proteins; pyroglutamate is found in bacteriorhodopsin (see Chapter 9).
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Several Amino Acids Occur Rarely in Proteins Figure 4.4 (c) Several amino acids that act as neurotransmitters and hormones.
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4.2 What Are Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids? Amino Acids are Weak Polyprotic Acids
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course SCIENCE 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at LSU.

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Chapter 4 - Reginald H. Garrett Charles M. Grisham Chapter...

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