Athens is a very different city-state than Sparta.
It's the biggest city-state, and it occupies a
It controls the surrounding land called Attica, and has a population of 350,000.
Athenian assembly is called the Ecclesia, but all the decisions are made in the Areopagus.
This leads to
The Nobles decide to do something before a revolution, and so they get Draco to make a
political reform in 621 B.C.
Solon frees all the slaves in 594 B.C.
In 510, Athens is at a crossroads.
They went from Oligarchy, to Anarchy, to Tyranny.
Hippias was kicked-out, they have no government again.
Cleisthenes proposes democracy.
the _ into ten tribes, and make a group of 500 people to vote on things.
The problem is that nobles
could bribe the representatives and make it an effective Oligarchy again.
To stop the nobles from
bribing people into rigged elections, the representatives from each tribes is picked at random, and
they're switched out every two years.
These big policy decisions are made at the Ecclesia.
A debate is
held in front of everyone, and so eloquence makes people vote for things.
Nobles argue that the general people are not educated enough to make good decisions, and that
demagogues (good speakers) manipulate people to vote in their favor.
The emergence of classical Greece comes with the contest against the Persian Empire.
conquered by the Persians, and the Ionians suffer under their rule.
An Ionian city, Miletus, revolts
against the Persians in 499 B.C.
They petition for help from Sparta, but the Spartans say no because
they dislike the idea of leaving Laconia.
Athens is also asked for help, and Athens sends warships and
give Miletus its freedom for five years before the Persians overwhelm them.
Darius I, the Persian
King, is angry with Athens for doing this.
He sends an army to go destroy Athens.
They land at
Marathon, 26 miles east of Athens.
They ask for Spartan help, but the Spartans are in a religious
festival and can't help them.
However, Athens gets help from Plataea--1,000 men, all of them.
Miltiades, the Athenian commander, routes the Persian army in 490 B.C.
After this victory, the
Spartans arrive with no one to fight.
The Persians are too distracted by other things to deal with this
Themistocles says to the Ecclesia that the Persians are going to come back, and that they need a
fleet to defend themselves.
By 480, they have built 200 Trireme boats.
Xerxes succeeds Darius I, and he sends 400,000 men to attack them.
The Greek city-states elect
Sparta to lead the defense.
The Persians need to go through the Thermopylae, a narrow pass, and the
Spartans with the help of around seven thousand other Greeks.
The Greeks are betrayed by the
Persians being told about a path around the mountains to flank the Greeks.
The Spartans tell the other
Greeks to leave, they don't, and all the Greeks die.
The Athenians ask the Oracle of Delphi what to do, and the Oracle says “The Athenians will be