ancMed-FeskeTEST1 - 8/17 The Ural Mountains are what...

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8/17 The Ural Mountains are what separates the European continent from the Asian continent. Western and Central Europe's proximity to water affect many things in their history, such as the climate. Because of the topography, commerce finds it easier to navigate around the Mediterranean East, West, and South rather than North. Civilization forms around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers because these rivers have beds that are above the surrounding land. Groups of people are able to build ditches to easily redirect water from these rivers to their crops. Using this irrigation, farmers are able to produce surplus, which will lead to trade and other non-farming jobs. 8/19 The majority (96-98%) of people in these towns are farmers, but their surplus allow administrators, military leaders, and priests to organize, protect, and boost them and their ability to farm. This is an early form of taxation. Artisans push the people into the Neolithic Age, where stone tools and weapons become more sophisticated. Copper tools, however, are too soft. Bronze (copper:tin::9:1) is discovered to be harder, and so cities try to get more of it. Of course, bronze is not in unlimited supply, so the supply is mostly used for weapons to protect from invading tribes. Priests make ziggaruts as temples of sacrifice. These temples are made of mud bricks. In order to determine if farmers paid their taxes, a writing system called Cuneiform was made. 8/22 Cities in Mesopotamia are in a constant state of battle. As a result, some people who are good fighters become professional soldiers. Because there has to be many people farming, the amount of professional soldiers is low. However, these military professionals (generals) gain political power through their promise of safety. The importance of these generals outgrows that of priests, and a sort of kingship is formed. The kings gain the support of the army, bureaucracy, and priests. Kings, in order to counter priests complaints, say that they speak for the gods, as a sort of mouthpiece. Cities absorb other cities to make kingdoms, and Sargon I is the first leader of a kingdom in about 2340 B.C. To keep control of the large area efficiently, a law code was developed by the king in order that governors treat problems similarly. Hammurabi's Code is the most famous, despite him not being its inventor. It's the most famous because Hammurabi's Code is the only one that survived. Civilizations begin to decline because the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have a small salt content-- flooding places with them leaves a little salt and hurts fertility. ********* The Egyptians, while having contact with Mesopotamia, are very unique. The Nile river does not flood violently. This makes agriculture a lot easier, and so the Egyptians are more optimistic than Mesopotamians. The Nile river is much more navigable than the Tigris and Euphrates. To move against the current, and Egyptians develop sails. 8/24
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course HISTORY HIST 1001 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at LSU.

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ancMed-FeskeTEST1 - 8/17 The Ural Mountains are what...

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