The Ural Mountains are what separates the European continent from the Asian continent.
Western and Central Europe's proximity to water affect many things in their history, such as the
Because of the topography, commerce finds it easier to navigate around the Mediterranean
East, West, and South rather than North.
Civilization forms around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers because these rivers have beds that are
above the surrounding land.
Groups of people are able to build ditches to easily redirect water from
these rivers to their crops.
Using this irrigation, farmers are able to produce surplus, which will lead to
trade and other non-farming jobs.
The majority (96-98%) of people in these towns are farmers, but their surplus allow
administrators, military leaders, and priests to organize, protect, and boost them and their ability to
This is an early form of taxation.
Artisans push the people into the Neolithic Age, where stone
tools and weapons become more sophisticated.
Copper tools, however, are too soft.
(copper:tin::9:1) is discovered to be harder, and so cities try to get more of it.
Of course, bronze is not
in unlimited supply, so the supply is mostly used for weapons to protect from invading tribes.
Priests make ziggaruts as temples of sacrifice.
These temples are made of mud bricks.
to determine if farmers paid their taxes, a writing system called Cuneiform was made.
Cities in Mesopotamia are in a constant state of battle.
As a result, some people who are good
fighters become professional soldiers.
Because there has to be many people farming, the amount of
professional soldiers is low.
However, these military professionals (generals) gain political power
through their promise of safety.
The importance of these generals outgrows that of priests, and a sort of
kingship is formed.
The kings gain the support of the army, bureaucracy, and priests.
Kings, in order
to counter priests complaints, say that they speak for the gods, as a sort of mouthpiece.
Cities absorb other cities to make kingdoms, and Sargon I is the first leader of a kingdom in
about 2340 B.C.
To keep control of the large area efficiently, a law code was developed by the king in
order that governors treat problems similarly.
Hammurabi's Code is the most famous, despite him not
being its inventor.
It's the most famous because Hammurabi's Code is the only one that survived.
Civilizations begin to decline because the Tigris and Euphrates rivers have a small salt content--
flooding places with them leaves a little salt and hurts fertility.
The Egyptians, while having contact with Mesopotamia, are very unique.
The Nile river does
not flood violently.
This makes agriculture a lot easier, and so the Egyptians are more optimistic than
The Nile river is much more navigable than the Tigris and Euphrates.
against the current, and Egyptians develop sails.