Study Guide 1

Study Guide 1 - An Introduction to Biology 20:07 Seven...

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An Introduction to Biology 20:07 Seven Characteristics of Life Cells and organization Opposite of entropy- in order Cell is fundamental building block of life- macromolecules with information separated by membrane Cell theory- cells are the smallest unit, all organisms are made of cells, new cells come from other cells Organisms maintain an internal order that is separated from the environment Energy use and metabolism Energy is the ability to do work Acquire energy from the environment- use the energy to maintain internal order Cellular respiration is the process by which energy is derived from food Anabolism- the creation of larger molecules- requires energy Catabolism- breaks down larger molecules- releases energy- respiration Heterotrophs (humans) get their energy from autotrophs and phototrophs (plants)- phototrophs get energy from the sun Response to environmental changes Adaptation- plants reaching for the window Short term response Regulation and homeostasis We’re warm-blooded because we regulate our temperature and pH- the pH of blood is 7.3 All organisms continually regulate their cellular metabolism Growth and development
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Growth is mitosis- more or larger cells Development is the changes of cellular characteristics Reproduction Continuity of life Key feature- offspring tend to have characteristics that greatly resemble those of their parent(s) DNA’s capacity to replicate and mutate allows variation and evolution All living organisms contain genetic material Genes, segments of DNA, govern the characteristics of organisms- most genes are transcribed in mRNA and then translated into a polypeptide Biological evolution Evolution over a period of time Acquired inheritance comes from doing something- giraffes stretching for trees Levels of Organization Atoms- smallest state with physical an chemical properties- matter has mass and occupies space Molecules and macromolecules- made of atoms of the same elements- compounds are different elements- mm are lipids, dna, etc. Cells- autonomous Tissues- many cells of the same type Organs- composed of 2 or more types of tissues Organ system Organism Species- organisms that can mate together Population- same species in one place at one time
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Community- assemblage of populations of different species Ecosystem- interactions of a community of organisms with their physical environment Biosphere- all the places on Earth where living organisms exist Properties of Life Unity All modern forms of life display a common set of characteristics Based on biological evolution Come from prokaryotes Continuity- DNA- hereditary Diversity Many types of environments with diverse organisms Hallmark of life- causes species Evolutionary History Life began on Earth as primitive cells 3.5-4 billion years ago Primitive cells- evolutionary changes- rise to the species we see today Understanding evolutionary history helps us understand the structure and function of an organism’s body Homologous organs- same ancestor- different structure and function- i.e. a human hand and a bat
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course CELL 1010 taught by Professor Hopkins during the Fall '11 term at Tulane.

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Study Guide 1 - An Introduction to Biology 20:07 Seven...

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