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The Rate of Reaction

# The Rate of Reaction - -between Exp 1 and Exp 2 and Exp 2...

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The Rate of Reaction ***cannot look at a balanced reaction to determine the rate order: must do experimentally ***ALL RATE EXPRESSIONS ARE DETERMINED EXPERIMENTALLY Example : Rate α [X] 2 or Rate = k[X] 2 -2 nd order = concentration will be squared -Factors that can influence the rate of reaction 1. The nature of the reactants 2. The concentration of the reactants 3. The temperature of the reaction 4. The presence of a catalyst A (α) + B (α) → Products Example 16-1 -between Exp 1 and Exp 3, [A] stays the same, [B] changes, rate stays the same -the order with respect to B is 0 (because rate stays the same even though [B] changes -between Exp 1 and Exp 2, [A] doubles, rate doubles -the order with respect to A is 1 (because rate doubles) Rate = k[A] 1 [B] 0 -to solve for k, take a set of data and plug into equation k = 0.0020 s -1 ***First order reaction: 1/time ***Second order: 1/concentration unit x time Example 16-2 Rate = k[A] 1 [B] 1 [C] 0 -between Exp 1 and Exp 3, [C] triples, rate stays the same -the order with respect to C is 0 (rate stays the same even though [C] changes)

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Unformatted text preview: -between Exp 1 and Exp 2, and Exp 2 and Exp 4, [A] and [B] triples, rate triples-the order with respect to A and to B is 1 (both triple) k =0.010 1/Ms Example 16-3-first order A, first order B, second order overall-Exp 2: [A] = 0.80 M-Exp 3: [B] = 0.20 M-Integrated Rate Equation-1 st order ln [A] /[A] = a k t-d[A]/dt = a k t [A] = mol/L of A at time t=0 [A] = mol/L of A at time t k = specific T = 1/ak * ln([A] /[A])-half-life (t 1/2 ) of the reactant is the time required for half of the reactant to be consumed, or the time at which [A] = ½[A]-half-life is constant t = t 1/2 t 1/2 = 0.693/ ak ln [A] /[A] = a k t-use to find the time [A] = [A] e-akt Example 16-4 t/2 = 0.075 s Example 16-5 0.030 g Example 16-6 k = -0.00101 hr-1 [A] = 2.86 g left-2nd order 1/[A] – 1/[A] = a k t t 1/2 = 1/ ak[A]-half-life depends on how much stuff was initially there Example 16-7...
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The Rate of Reaction - -between Exp 1 and Exp 2 and Exp 2...

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