Ch07 - CHAPTER 7 The Nervous System K Wells VPHY3100...

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CHAPTER 7: The Nervous System K. Wells VPHY3100: Elements of Physiology Dept. Physiology & Pharmacology College Vet. Med.
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Wells/VPHY3100 Lecture Outline Organization of the nervous system Structure & function of glial cells Structure & function of neurons The membrane potential & electrical excitability Ion channels & the action potential The synapse & synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters & their receptors
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Wells/VPHY3100 The Nervous System From Kandel et al ., Principles of Neural Science, 4th Ed. Two divisions of the nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Overall structure of the CNS 7 major parts of the CNS 3 broad regions of the brain Two cell types of the nervous system Glia Neurons
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Wells/VPHY3100 Anatomy of a Neuron FIGURE 7.2
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Wells/VPHY3100 Terminology Table 7.1 CNS = brain & spinal cord PNS = all nervous tissue outside of CNS Functional classes of neurons: Aff erent neurons --> sensory neurons Eff erent neurons --> motor neurons Somatic motor neurons Autonomic motor neurons Inter neurons Nuclei (CNS) vs. ganglia (PNS) “Fibers”: tracts (CNS) vs. nerves (PNS)
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FIGURE 7.3
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Wells/VPHY3100 Morphological Classes of Neurons FIGURE 7.4
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Wells/VPHY3100 Lecture Outline Organization of the nervous system Structure & function of glial cells Structure & function of neurons The membrane potential & electrical excitability Ion channels & the action potential The synapse & synaptic transmission Neurotransmitters & their receptors
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Wells/VPHY3100 Supporting Cells: Glia FIGURE 7.5
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Wells/VPHY3100 Astrocytes (CNS) Most abundant type of glial cell Multiple functions via end-feet on capillaries & neurons Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Function: insulation of central axons One oligodendrocyte per ~15 internodes Myelin sheath (“white matter”) Schwann cells (PNS) Function: insulation of peripheral axons One Schwann cell per internode “Neurilemma” vs. “myelin sheath” Predominant Glia of Vertebrates
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Astrocytic Functions FIGURE 7.10 Glucose uptake from blood; lactate delivery to neurons K+ re-uptake Neurotransmitter (glutamate) re-uptake Glutamate/Glutamine shuttle to re-supply neurons with neurotransmitter Synaptogenesis & neurogenesis Establish & maintain the blood-brain barrier Neurotransmitter release -- role in electrical excitability?
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Wells/VPHY3100 Astrocytes (CNS) Most abundant type of glial cell Multiple functions via end-feet on capillaries & neurons Oligodendrocytes (CNS) Function: insulation of central axons One oligodendrocyte per ~15 internodes Myelin sheath (“white matter”) Schwann cells (PNS) Function: insulation of peripheral axons One Schwann cell per internode “Neurilemma” vs. “myelin sheath” Predominant Glia of Vertebrates
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Wells/VPHY3100 Astrocytes (CNS) Most abundant type of glial cell Multiple functions via end-feet on capillaries & neurons Oligodendrocytes (CNS)
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