Chapter 10 Review

Chapter 10 Review - Chapter 10 Sensory Physiology-how we...

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Chapter 10: Sensory Physiology -how we perceive environment - three steps with any sense: -physical stimulus -sensory transduction (transformation of sensory input into nerve impulse) -formulation of perception (conscious experience) -six systems - somatosensory -touch, proprioception, temperature, pain -visual -auditory -vestibular -olfactory -gustatory -types of information conveyed by each sensory system - modality of stimulus -intensity -time course -location -sensory cells: some neurons, some specialized epithelial cells (synapse on adjacent sensory neurons) -four functional classes of sensory receptors -mechanoreceptors (mechanical deformation of receptor cell membrane) -touch and pressure receptors in skin -chemoreceptors (chemical stimuli in environment or blood) -taste buds -thermoreceptors (respond to heat and cold) -photoreceptors (rods and cones in retina) -sensory receptors at protein level -channels (stretch receptors) -GPCR (photoreceptors of retina) Modalities and sensory receptors - five senses: taste, touch, smell, sight, sound -other somatic senses: pain, temperature, itch, proprioception -sense of balance (vestibular system) -each receptor respond to particular modality, only one modality perceived - sensory receptor transduces external stimulus into internal electrical impulses -stimulation transduction -receptor potential -stimulus intensity encoded by action potential frequency Intensity -mostly depolarizations that are analogous to EPSPs -receptor potentials: generate AP in response to sensory stimulation -graded potential changes, reach threshold value will generate AP -increase of stimuli strength, increase of amplitude, increase in frequency of AP Sensory Adaptation
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-duration of sensation encoded by adaption of receptors -phasic and tonic receptors -sensory systems detect contrasts -phasic receptor -fast adapting: burst of activity, decrease firing rate if stimulus maintained -sensory adaptation -odor, touch, temperature -tonic receptor -slow-adapting: higher firing rate the entire time
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Chapter 10 Review - Chapter 10 Sensory Physiology-how we...

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