Chapter 11 Review

Chapter 11 Review - Chapter 11: Endocrinology Extracellular...

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Chapter 11: Endocrinology Extracellular Signaling Mechanism - Neurotransmission -local signaling -autocrine signaling -paracrine signaling -endocrine signaling -chemical release must enter blood supply (endocrine gland) and get sent out Endocrinology -study of endocrine glands/tissues, hormones and effects on target tissues - hormones carried via blood -carried to target cells with receptor proteins -regulate body metabolism, growth, reproduction Hormones -similar to NT - often synthesized as inactive hormone precursor molecule -preprohormone prohormone hormone -most target tissue regulated by multiple hormones -complementary or antagonistic -maintain certain normal level -tissue response based on plasma concentrations -physiological ranges: sensitization/upregulation -pharmacological: desensitization/downregulation Classification of Hormones -chemical structures -amino acid derivatives -epi and norepi -thyroid hormones -melatonin -peptides and proteins -hypothalamic and pituitary hormones -insulin and glucagon -parathyroid hormone -steroids -corticosteroids -sex steroids -physical properties -hydrophilic hormones interact with cell surface receptors -peptide and protein -epi and norepi -hydrophobic hormones (lipophilic) interact with intracelullur receptors -steroid -thyroid Cellular receptors -three types of receptors -enzyme linked receptors (cell surface)
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-receptor itself is enzyme -act through intracellular 2 nd messengers (cAMP, Ca, kinases) -insulin, growth factors -GPCR -act through 2 nd messengers -epi, norepi -Intracellular receptor -become transcription factor in nucleus -steroids, thyroid The Pancreas: an Endocrine Gland -endocrine and exocrine -islets of Langerhans -alpha cells: glucagon -beta cells: insulin (twice as many) -both can affect blood glucose levels, direct feedback mechanism -influence secretion of pancreatic hormones - antagonistic effect -insulin: counter plasma glucose level, promote conversion of glucose into glycogen -glucagon: promotes effects that raise plasma glucose concentration -pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels and cellular metabolism -insulin: anabolism (build up)
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Chapter 11 Review - Chapter 11: Endocrinology Extracellular...

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