ACIDS_1 - Acid and Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Review...

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Acid and Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Review Chapter 4.1 (Electrolytes) Review Chapter 4.3 (Acid-Base Reactions) Memorize 7 Strong Acids (Table 4.2) Memorize the Strong Bases (Also Table 4.2) Review Equilibrium (Ch. 15)
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ACIDS 1) Sour taste: Lemon Juice – Citric acid. Vinegar – Acetic Acid. Stomach ulcers are aggravated by hydrochloric acid. HCl 2) Dissolve active metals, usually liberating H 2 . 3) Corrosive – dissolve compounds that are otherwise hard to dissolve. Examples: Precious metals such as gold (Au) dissolve in HNO 3 + HCl (aqua regia). Hard water deposits dissolve in vinegar. 4) Turn litmus paper RED .
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BASES 1) Bitter taste. 2) Dissolve oil and grease. Drano and lye soap contain NaOH. Breaks ester and amide bonds 3) Slippery to the touch – dissolves hair and skin. 4) React with many metal ions to form precipitates. Mg 2+ + 2OH - Mg(OH) 2 Example: Hard water (=Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ ) + soap White ppt. (bathtub rings) 5) Turn litmus paper BLUE
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Arrhenius ACID: Any compound that releases H + when dissolved in H 2 O. Example: HCl (g) + H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Arrhenius BASE: Any compound that releases OH - when dissolved in H 2 O. Example: KOH (s) + H 2 O K + (aq) + OH - (aq) ARRHENIUS ACIDS AND BASES
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Bronstead ACID: Any compound capable of donating a H + ion. Example: HCl(g) + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Bronstead BASE: Any compound capable of accepting a H + ion . Example: NH 3 (g) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Demo ACIDS AND BASES
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HYDRONIUM ION H 3 O + pH and pOH
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FYI: Conjugate Acids and Bases • The term conjugate comes from the Latin word “conjugare,” meaning “to join together.” • Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids. Note: The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base. The weaker the acid , the stronger its conjugate base.
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CONJUGATE ACID BASE PAIRS Differ only by the presence or absence of a proton (H + ). Conjugate Acid = Conjugate Base + H + Examples: H 3 O + / H 2 O H 2 O / OH - NH 4 + / NH 3 HCl / Cl - Note: The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base. The weaker the acid, the stronger its conjugate base. The conjugate of a weak acid is a weak base . The conjugate of a strong acid is a spectator ion (example: Cl - is the conjugate base of HCl). The conjugate acid of OH - (strong base) is water.
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WATER Water electrolyzes slightly to produce H + and OH - reversibly . H 2 O H + + OH - Autoionization of water K a = ([H + ] [OH - ]) / [H 2 O] K w = K a [H 2 O] = [H + ] [OH - ] K w = [H + ] [OH - ] = 1 x 10 -14 pH = -log 10 [H + ], pOH = -log 10 [OH - ], For pure water, [H + ] = [OH - ] = 10 -7 , so pH = 7, pOH = 7
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K w is constant even when [H + ] and [OH - ] are not equal Calculate [H + ] in a 0.05 M Ca(OH) 2 solution
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This note was uploaded on 10/04/2011 for the course CHEM 437623 taught by Professor Sherylrummel during the Spring '10 term at Penn State.

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ACIDS_1 - Acid and Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Review...

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