Chemistry_of_Elements

Chemistry_of_Elements - Chemistry of the Elements, Mostly...

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Chemistry of the Elements, Mostly Non-Metals Chapter 22 1 Chemistry of the Elements
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Chemistry of the Main Group elements Occurrence of elements Abundance Where in nature State of elements Isolation and purification Nonmetals Metals (metallurgy) Periodic Trends Size Ionization energy and Electron affinity Electronegativity Metallic Character Trends in Acid/base properties Trends in oxidation states Trends in bonding Period II vs. Period III Effects of Bonding: Hydrides Summary of Periodic Trends For Groups I - VIII 2 Chemistry of the Elements
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Abundance of elements Cosmic abundance Element Atomic No. Rel. Abundance H 1 3.5 x 10 8 He 2 3.5 x 10 7 C 6 80,000 N 7 160,000 O 8 210,000 F 9 90 Ne 10 10,000 Na 11 462 Mg 12 8,870 Al 13 882 Si 14 10,000 Cr 24 95 Mn 25 77 Fe 26 18,300 3 Chemistry of the Elements
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Abundance of elements Terrestrial abundance Element Atomic No. PPM Rank H 1 8,700 9 He 2 0.003 C 6 800 N 7 300 O 8 495,000 1 F 9 270 Na 11 26,000 6 Mg 12 19,000 8 Al 13 75,000 3 Si 14 257,000 2 K 19 24,000 7 Ca 20 34,000 5 Ti 22 5,800 10 Fe 26 47,000 4 4 Chemistry of the Elements
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The periodic table 5 Chemistry of the Elements
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Standard states of the elements Nonmetals Atomic gases Noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Diatomics – Halogens and H 2 , N 2 , O 2 H 2 , N 2 , O 2 (gas) F 2 (gas) Cl 2 (gas) Br 2 (liquid) I 2 (solid) Other nonmetals – Solids C (graphite), S, P, Se Halogens (group 7) Metals Almost all solids Metalloids All solids The most stable form of an element at 298 K and 1 atm (“STP”) 6 Chemistry of the Elements
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Isolation of the Elements From their Natural state Sources of Gas-Phase Nonmetals: 4) Hydrogen a) Steam Reforming CH 4 (g) + H 2 O (g) CO (g) + 3 H 2 (g) C (s) + H 2 O(g) CO (g) + H 2 (g) b) Electrolysis of water 2 H 2 O (l) 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 1) HEAVY Noble Gases, O 2 , N 2 Fractional distillation of liq. air 2) Helium Rock formations: from decay of radioactive elements ( α particles) 3) Halogens a) Electrolysis: F 2 , Cl 2 b) Displacement reactions: Br 2 , I 2 7 Chemistry of the Elements
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From their Natural state 1) Carbon: coal, diamond, graphite 2) Sulfur: S 8 3) Phosphorus: phosphate rock, e.g. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 4) Boron is rare: found in one mineral: Borax, Na 2 B 4 O 7 ·(OH
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Chemistry_of_Elements - Chemistry of the Elements, Mostly...

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