NUCLEAR - Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes...

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Unformatted text preview: Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes Radioactive Decay Products of Nuclear Decay Nuclear Stability Rate of nuclear decay Nuclear dating Nuclear Binding energy Fission/Fusion Radiation Exposure Nuclear Medicine Review Structure of atom Atomic Number Mass Number Nucleons 6 12 C Hydrogen Isotopes 1 H protium most abundant isotope, nucleus consists of a single proton 2 H deuterium one neutron and one proton often given the symbol D. forms the hydrogen component of heavy water (D 2 O). 3 H tritium one proton and 2 neutrons radioactive isotope: half-life of 12.3 yrs not found in nature . Isotope effects Properties that depend on mass will be different for different isotopes of the same element: Examples: bp, mp, reaction rates, rate of diffusion Deuterium and hydrogen exhibit isotopic differences in their properties. Eg. boiling points of heavy water and conventional water are slightly different allowing them to be separated by fractional distillation . Isotopes can be used to label compounds. Hydrogen Isotopes Nuclear Chemistry Ionizing Radiation Energy needed to ionize http://son.nasa.gov/tass/content/electrospectrum.htm The nuclei of some unstable isotopes undergo change by releasing energy and particles collectively known as radiation Longer wavelength: lower energy Short wavelength: higher energy Radioactive Decay Spontaneous nuclear reactions 5 kinds 1) Emission of - particles : 4 2 He e.g. 238 92 U 234 90 Th + 4 2 He 2) Emission of -particles : 1 e = electrons . e.g. 131 53 I 131 54 Xe + 1 e - particle emission converts a neutron to a proton: 1 n 1 1 p + 1 e 3) Emission of -rays : - ray emission changes neither atomic number nor mass. 4) Emission of positrons ( +-particles): +1 e e.g. 11 6 C 11 5 B + 1 e Positron emission converts a proton to a neutron: 1 1 p 1 n + 1 e Positrons have a short lifetime because they recombine with electrons and annihilate: 1 e + 1 e 2 5) Electron Capture: an electron from the orbitals surrounding the nucleus can be captured: e.g. 81 37 Rb + 1 e 81 36 Kr Electron capture converts a proton to a neutron: 1 1 p + 1 e 1 n Radioactive Decay Products of Nuclear Decay Fill in the blanks 239 94 Pu 4 2 He + ? 234 91 Pr 234 92 U + ? 18 9 F 18 8 O + ? 192 77 Ir + ? 192 76 Os Detecting radiation In air, - particles travel several cm....
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NUCLEAR - Nuclear Chemistry Structure of atom Isotopes...

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