Solubility - Chapter17(Continued) Solubilityequilibrium Ksp

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Chapter 17 (Continued) Solubility equilibrium K sp Factors affecting solubility 1 Solubility
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SOLUBILITY l bilit tit f bt th t di l t f Solubility: quantity of a substance that dissolves to form a saturated solution Solubility: g/L Molar solubility: mole/L Some salts are very soluble (> 0.1 M). Some salts are sparingly soluble (< 0.1 M) sometimes referred to as soluble’. Recall solubility rules (Chapter 4.2). insoluble . Precipitation and Solubility of ionic salts and their equilibrium in water MA(s) M + (aq) + A (aq) 2 Solubility
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SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA Precipitation i l ti Dissolution hen forward rate = backward te: equilibrium When forward rate backward rate: equilibrium AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) K eq = [Ag + (aq) ][Cl (aq) ] [AgCl (s) ] K eq [AgCl (s) ] = [ Ag + ][Cl ] The concentration of solid does not change at equilibrium 3 Solubility K sp = [Ag + ][Cl ]
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K SP - SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT The solubility product is equal to the product of the concentrations of the ions involved in the quilibrium each raised to the power of it’s co equilibrium, each raised to the power of it s co efficient. sp constant for a given solid at a given Ksp is constant for a given solid at a given Temp. olubility = amount of CaF issociated Solubility amount of CaF 2 dissociated s= 2.14 x 10 4 mol/lit aF ) a +2 q 2F q CaF 2 (s) Ca (aq) + 2F (aq) -s + s +2 s sp = [Ca 2+ F - 2 = s (2s) 2 =4s 3 = 9 x 10 11 Ksp [Ca ][F ] s.(2s) 4 s 3.9 x 10 Ksp of CaF 2 =3.9 x 10 11 at 25 o C
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Solubility Products Solubility Product: K sp AgCl 1.8 × 10 10 AgBr 5.0 × 10 13 AgI 8.3 × 10 17 CdS 8.0 × 10 27 ZnS 1.1 × 10 21 Mg(OH) 2 1.8 × 10 11 6 Ca(OH) 2 5.5 × 10 CaF 2 3.9 × 10 BaCO 3 5.1 × 10 9 aSO 1 0 1 BaSO 4 1.1 × 10 0 5
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SOLUBILITY CALCULATION Calculate [Ca 2+ ], [F ] for a saturated CaF 2 sol’n. F ) + ) + 2F ) CaF 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2F (aq) x2 x K sp = [Ca 2+ ][F ] 2 = x(2x) 2 = 4x 3 = 3.9 x 10 11 = [Ca 2+ = 2.14 x 10 4 x [Ca ] 2.14 x 10 M [F ] = 2x = 4.3 x 10 4 M CaF 2 solubility = 2.14 x 10 4 moles/liter
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Ksp of PbI 2 (4 x 10 8 ) PbI 2 (s) = Pb 2+ + 2 I Start with I lit. of 0.01 M Pb 2+ Add I (1M KI) to cause ppt.
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Solubility - Chapter17(Continued) Solubilityequilibrium Ksp

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