Biology Chapter 6 Notes

Biology Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell...

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Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life All Organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive Cell structure is correlated to cellular function All cells are related by their descent from earlier cells Concept 6.1: Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells Though usually they can’t be seen by the unaided eye, cells can be complex - Three important parameters of microscopy Magnification, the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size Resolution, the measure of the clarity of the image, or the minimum distance of two distinguishable points Contrast, visible differences in parts of the sample Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions The basic structural and functional unit of every organism is one of two types of cells: prokaryotic or eukaryotic Only organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archea consist of prokaryotic cells Protists, fungi , animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Basic features of all cells - Plasma membrane - Semifluid substance called cytosol - Chromosomes (carry genes) - Ribosomes (make proteins) Prokaryotic cells are Characterized by having - No Nucleus - DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid - No membrane-bound organelles - Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane Figure 6.5 Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having - DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope - Membrane-bound organelles - Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus Eukaryotic cells are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells The plasma membrane is a selective barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell - The general structure of a biological membrane is a double layer of phospholipids Figure 6.6
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Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell Metabolic requirements set upper limits on the size of cells - The surface area to volume ratio of a cell is critical As the surface area increases by a factor of n2, the volume increases by a factor of n3 Small cells have a greater surface area relative to volume Figure 6.7 A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell A eukaryotic cell has internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles - Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles Figure 6.8a and Figure 6.8c Concept 6.3: The eukaryotic cells instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes
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Biology Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell...

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