Chapter 1 - Chemistry Chapter 1 Introduction: Science The...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry Chapter 1 Introduction: Science The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena (i.e. everything) Physical Sciences - Physics- Chemistry- Organic, Inorganic, Physical, Analytical, Theoretical, Medicinal, Biological, Materials, Etc.- Biology Chemistry - The science of the observation of matter (anything that has mass and occupies space) Matter is composed of discrete, tiny particles called ATOMS- Democritus (470-370 B.C.) thought of atoms (from the Greek atomos, indivisible) ATOMS are more commonly found combined into MOLECULES Observation - Chemistry connects the microscopic (atomic/molecular) and macroscopic (seemingly continuous) worlds using symbolism Macroscopic Leaves turning brown Microscopic Leaves lose chlorophyll molecules Symbolic - Green leaves + cold weather = loss of chlorophyll leading to brown leaves/ Linking the BIG WORLD and the LITTLE WORLD together. 1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge The Scientific Method is a procedure for processing observations: Laws and (correct) theories can be used to make predictions. Note the presence of Feedback! 1.3 The Classification of Matter Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Chemistry Chapter 1 Composition Structure Matter Properties Reaction 1.3 The Classification of Matter Substances A substance is a particular kind of matter with a fixed atomic composition that does not vary from sample to sample- Element a substance that cannot be broken down into any simpler substance by chemical means- Compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more elements, chemically combined, with the different kinds of atoms combined in fixed proportions 1.3 The Classification of Matter - Mixtures A mixture is a material containing two or more substances and is variable in composition- Heterogeneous mixture Varies in composition and/or properties from one part of the mixture to another- Homogeneous mixture composition and properties are the same throughout a.k.a solutions A mixture can usually be separated by physical means, e.g. filtration, distillation, and chromatography .. 1.3 The Classification of Matter States Solids- CRYSTALLINE SOLID - Regular, repeating, 3-D patterns e.g. diamond, metals- AMORPHUS SOLID - No regular internal arrangement- e.g. glass, plastic Liquids Gases- Chemistry: macroscopic behavior is the result of microscopic behavior Chemistry Chapter 1 1.3 The Classification of Matter - Phases A phase is a homogeneous part of a system (the matter were dealing with) separated from other parts by physical boundaries...
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Chapter 1 - Chemistry Chapter 1 Introduction: Science The...

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