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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Atoms and Electrons 2.1 Imaging and Moving Individual Atoms Everything is made up of little bits 2.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Movement of the tip is used to create an image with atomic resolution. 2.3 Modern Atomic Theory and the Laws that Led to it 2.1 The Law of Conservation of Mass Antoine Lavoisier (1743 1794)- Matter can neither be created or destroyed in any chemical reaction; thus, the total mass of substances involved in a chemical reaction remains unchanged Mass of the Reactants = Mass of Product In the chemical reaction (change) The total mass of substances is conserved !!! 2.1 Law of Definite Proportions Joseph Proust ( 1754 1826)- Regardless of source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts (fractions) by mass 2.1 Law of Multiple Proportions John Dalton (1766 1844)- If elements A and B react to form more than one compound, the different masses of B that react with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers. 2.1 Daltons Atomic Theory In 1808, Dalton explained the fundamental Laws of Matter in his atomic theory of matter- All matter consists of ATOMS tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed during chemical change (Democritus and Lavoisier)- All atoms of a given element are alike in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element differ from the atoms of every other element (Dalton)- When atoms combine, chemical compounds are formed. A given compound always contains the same relative numbers and types of atoms (Proust and Dalton)...
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